Enfilade

Exhibition | William Hunter and the Anatomy of the Modern Museum

Posted in books, catalogues, exhibitions, lectures (to attend) by Editor on October 19, 2018

Press release (12 September 2018) for the exhibition:

William Hunter and the Anatomy of the Modern Museum
The Hunterian, Glasgow, 28 September 2018 — 6 January 2019
Yale Center for British Art, New Haven, 14 February — 20 May 2019

Curated by Mungo Campbell with Nathan Flis and Lola Sánchez-Jáuregui

A major new exhibition at The Hunterian, University of Glasgow, will mark an important anniversary in the history of Scotland’s oldest public museum. William Hunter and the Anatomy of the Modern Museum opens on 28 September 2018 and marks the William Hunter Tercentenary—300 years since the birth of Hunterian founder, Dr William Hunter (1718–1783). The exhibition not only offers a critical examination of Hunter—a man of exceptional vision who saw no boundaries between art and science, but explores his life, character, and career as well as his research, collection, and links to Glasgow.

Rhetenor blue morpho butterfly (Morpho rhetenor Cramer), 1775, Suriname (Hunterian, University of Glasgow).

Hunter’s original Enlightenment collection is a rare example which has survived largely intact and these objects and artworks are the foundation of The Hunterian collections today. William Hunter and the Anatomy of the Modern Museum showcases this truly unique collection, encyclopaedic in nature and with its heart in the Scottish Enlightenment. The exhibition also offers a balanced account of the circumstances that made a collection like Hunter’s possible and examines the means by which it was amassed. Visitors will have the opportunity to see key items from Hunter’s collection, reunited for the first time in over 150 years and displayed to highlight the connections between them.

More than 400 items will be on display including: fossils; anatomical specimens and preparations; paintings, drawings and prints; rare books and manuscripts; ethnographical objects; rocks and mineral specimens; coins and medals; shells, corals, beetles, butterflies and examples of taxidermy. The majority come from The Hunterian, and Archives and Special Collections at the University of Glasgow Library, where Hunter’s collection of books and manuscripts is kept.

Key loans include a life size écorché figure from the Royal Academy of Arts in London and Johan Zoffany’s painting William Hunter Lecturing that shows William Hunter delivering an anatomy class, on loan from the Royal College of Physicians in London.

Important conservation work has been carried out on a number of items from Hunter’s collection including paintings, frames, sculptures, textiles, books, works on paper and objects of decorative art.

Ferdinand Verbiest, Kunyu Quantu 坤輿全圖 (A Map of the Whole World),1674, woodblock print on paper laid down on cloth, in four parts (Hunterian, University of Glasgow).

Must see items include:
• Four of Hunter’s plaster cast models, now fully restored, which were used in preparation for his great publication Anatomia Uteri Humani Gravidi Tabulis Illustrate (Anatomy of the Gravid Uterus Exhibited in Figures, 1774). A selection of related drawings, prints, and proofs are included, many of which have not been on display before. The casts show the various stages of the pregnant human womb in progressive states of dissection in graphic and stunning naturalistic detail.
• Our unique 17th-century Chinese map of the world, displayed in its entirety for the first time.
• Hunter’s complete collection of 88 gold Roman coins, issued by every Roman Emperor from 27BCE to 491CE. The Hunterian is one of only three places in the world where such a complete series can be seen.
• Hunter’s will — on loan from the National Archives of Scotland and on public display for the first time.
• The life-size écorché figure on loan from the Royal Academy of Arts in London.
• An exceptional and fully restored 18th-century Maori cloak from New Zealand made of flax and feathers.
• The Hunterian Psalter — usually housed in Archives and Special Collections at the University of Glasgow Library, this lavishly illuminated bound English manuscript is dated to 1170 and is considered the greatest treasure of William Hunter’s library.

William Hunter and the Anatomy of the Modern Museum also reveals the contribution made by Hunter to the development of modern museums as we know them today, exploring the interplay between the arts and sciences in the pursuit of knowledge over the course of the 18th century.

Jean-Siméon Chardin, A Lady Taking Tea, 1735, oil on canvas (Hunterian Art Gallery, University of Glasgow).

The exhibition and publication William Hunter and the Anatomy of the Modern Museum are the result of a five-year collaborative research project between The Hunterian and the Yale Center for British Art and showcase new research undertaken by an international team of scholars. The lead curator is Mungo Campbell, Deputy Director of The Hunterian; and the organizing curator at the Yale Center for British Art is Nathan Flis, Head of Exhibitions and Publications, and Assistant Curator of Seventeenth-Century Paintings. They are assisted by Lola Sanchez-Jauregui, William Hunter Tercentenary Curator at The Hunterian. A fully illustrated exhibition catalogue will be published by The Hunterian and the Center in association with Yale University Press.

Running in parallel with William Hunter and the Anatomy of the Modern Museum are two exhibitions offering 21st-century responses to Hunter’s collections, life, and work. Strange Foreign Bodies and Rosengarten showcase the work of leading contemporary artists and writers including Claire Barclay, Christine Borland, Anne Bevan, and Janice Galloway.

Strange Foreign Bodies is a group exhibition of films, prints, and sculptural works by artists including Claire Barclay, Christine Borland, Sarah Browne, Alex Impey, and Phillip Warnell. Taking William Hunter’s Tercentenary as its point of departure, the exhibition offers a 21st-century perspective on Hunter’s Enlightenment project, with processes of mutation, metamorphosis, and technological transformation central to many of the works. We encounter the story of a woman who has turned into an octopus, the philosophical reflections of a heart transplant patient, and the simulated breathing of an animatronic medical mannequin. These ‘strange foreign bodies’ reflect the complexity of all human embodiment today.

Rosengarten is a unique installation that brings together the sculpture of Anne Bevan and the words of Janice Galloway, two of Scotland’s foremost artists in their fields. Inspired by obstetric implements and important historic medical collections, Rosengarten looks at the tools of birthing and powerfully reflects the human and tender emotions of mother and baby that run parallel to the hard and frequently interventive experiences associated with modern childbirth.

William Hunter and the Anatomy of the Modern Museum is at the Hunterian Art Gallery from 28 September 2018 until 6 January 2019 then at the Yale Center for British Art (Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, USA) from 14 February until 20 May 2019. The project has been generously supported by The Royal Society of Edinburgh, the Paul Mellon Centre for Studies in British Art, Museums Galleries Scotland, and the Rev. Dr Donald McKellar Leitch Urie Bequest. Strange Foreign Bodies, also at the Hunterian Art Gallery, runs from 28 September 2018 until 13 January 2019. Rosengarten is now open at the Hunterian Art Gallery and runs until 20 January 2019. Purchased with funds from the National Collecting Scheme for Scotland and a grant from the Art Fund. Admission to all three exhibitions is free.

S E L E C T E D  P R O G R A M M I N G

3 October 2018 — Mungo Campbell (The Hunterian), William Hunter and the Anatomy of the Modern Museum: Curator’s Introduction

10 October 2018 — Christine Whyte (Lecturer in Global History, University of Glasgow), A Triangular Trade of Medical Knowledge: William Hunter, Enslaved Women, and Scottish Medical Expertise

William Hunter and Assistants, Anatomical Specimens: Arteries of the Intestine, 1746–83, portion of human gut with mesentery, turpentine and glass jar; portion of human gut and glass jar; portion of human gut with mesentery, turpentine and glass jar (Hunterian, University of Glasgow).

17 October 2018 — Paul Rea (Senior Lecturer in Human Life Sciences, University of Glasgow), Anatomy in the Digital Age

24 October 2018 — Dominic Paterson (The Hunterian), Strange Foreign Bodies

31 October 2018 — Jeanne Robinson (The Hunterian), ‘Mr Termite’: An Agent of Entomology and the Empire in 18th-Century Sierra Leone

7 November 2018 — Alicia Hughes (University of Glasgow), Title to be confirmed

14 November 2018  — Anne Dulau Beveridge (The Hunterian), The Curious Collector: What William Hunter’s Portraits Tell Us about the Man

21 November 2018 — Maggie Reilly (The Hunterian), Title to be confirmed

28 November 2018 — Michelle Craig (Leverhulme Trust Doctoral Scholar, University of Glasgow), The Curious Collector: Provenance in William Hunter’s Library

5 December 2018 — Matthew Sangster (Lecturer in 18th-Century Literature and Material Culture, University of Glasgow), Conceptions of Knowledge in William Hunter’s Library

12 December 2018 — Jesper Ericsson (The Hunterian), Title to be confirmed

19 December 2018 — Frances Osis (University of Glasgow), Title to be confirmed

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The catalogue is published by the Yale Center for British Art:

Edited by Mungo Campbell and Nathan Flis, with the assistance of María Dolores Sánchez-Jáuregui, William Hunter and the Anatomy of the Modern Museum (New Haven: Yale Center for British Art in association with The Hunterian, 2018), 440 pages, ISBN: 978-0300236651, $65.

Accompanying a groundbreaking exhibition, this publication is the first in 150 years to assess the contribution made by Hunter, the Scottish-born obstetrician, anatomist, and collector, to the development of the modern museum as a public institution. Essays examine how Hunter gathered his collection to be used as a source of knowledge and instruction, encompassing outstanding paintings and works on paper, coins and medals, and anatomical and zoological specimens. Hunter also possessed ethnographic artifacts from Spain, the Middle East, China, and the South Pacific, and was an avid collector of medieval manuscripts and incunabula; these were all located within one of the most important ‘working’ libraries of eighteenth-century London.

C O N T E N T S

Amy Meyers and Steph Scholten, Directors’ Foreword
Mungo Campbell and Nathan Flis, Acknowledgments
Contributors’ Biographies
Seren Nolan, William Hunter: A Chronology

Part I  Physician, Anatomist, Collector
• Mungo Campbell, William Hunter and the Anatomy of the Modern Museum: An Introduction
• Nathan Flis, Skeletons in Hunter’s Closet: James Douglas and the Fashioning of William Hunter
• Craig Ashley Hanson, A Motto for a Museum: William Hunter’s Inheritance from Richard Mead
• Matthew Sangster, Conceptions of Knowledge in William Hunter’s Library
• Meredith Gamer, Scalpel to Burin: A Material History of William Hunter’s Anatomy of the Human Gravid Uterus
• Dominik Hünniger, ‘Extolled by Foreigners’: William Hunter’s Collection and the Development of Science and Medicine in Eighteenth-Century Europe
• Nicholas Thomas, ‘A Great Collection of Curiosities from the South Sea Islands’: William Hunter’s Ethnography
• María Dolores Sánchez-Jáuregui, Anatomical Jars and Butterflies: Curating Knowledge in William Hunter’s Museum

Part II  Catalogue of the Exhibition
• Mungo Campbell, Portraits and Papers
• Mungo Campbell, Pedagogy and Professional Practice
• Peter Black, Anatomical Illustration and the Practice of Anatomy
• Maggie Reilly and Stuart McDonald, Anatomical Preparations
• Mungo Campbell, The Anatomy of the Human Gravid Uterus
• Peter Black and Anne Dulau Beveridge, Pictures
• Michelle Craig, The Library
• Donal Bateson, Coins and Medals
• Mungo Campbell, Pacific and Other ‘Curiosities’
• Maggie Reilly and Jeanne Robinson, Shells, Corals, Birds, Insects, and Other Preserved Animals
• John Faithfull and Neil Clark, Ores and Fossils

Appendices
1  Letter from William Hunter to William Cullen, 2–20 April 1765
2  Sale Catalogue of William Hunter’s Personal Effects, 1783

Selected Bibliography
Index
Photography Credits

 

Exhibition | It’s Alive! Frankenstein at 200

Posted in books, catalogues, exhibitions by Editor on October 6, 2018

From the press release (6 September) for the exhibition:

It’s Alive! Frankenstein at 200
The Morgan Library & Museum, New York, 12 October 2018 — 27 January 2019

Curated by John Bidwell and Elizabeth Denlinger

A classic of world literature, a masterpiece of horror, and a forerunner of science fiction, Frankenstein by Mary Shelley is the subject of a new exhibition at the Morgan. Organized in collaboration with the New York Public Library, It’s Alive! Frankenstein at 200 traces the origins and impact of the novel whose monster has become both a meme and a metaphor for forbidden science, unintended consequences, and ghastly combinations of the human and the inhuman. Portions of the original manuscript will be on display along with historic scientific instruments and iconic artwork such as Henry Fuseli’s Nightmare and the definitive portrait of Mary Shelley. The story’s astonishingly versatile role in art and culture over the course of two hundred years helps explain why the monster permeates the popular imagination to this day.

Joseph Wright, The Alchymist, in Search of the Philosopher’s Stone, Discovers Phosphorus, and Prays for the Successful Conclusion of his Operation, as was the Custom of the Ancient Chymical Astrologers, 1795, oil on canvas (Derby Museums Trust; photography by Richard Tailby).

Co-curated by John Bidwell, the Astor Curator and Department Head of the Morgan’s Printed Books and Bindings Department, and Elizabeth Denlinger, Curator of the Carl H. Pforzheimer Collection of Shelley and His Circle at The New York Public Library, this exhibition presents a diverse array of books, manuscripts, posters, prints, and paintings illustrating the long cultural tradition that shaped and was shaped by Mary Shelley’s myth. A large number of these works come from both the Morgan and the New York Public Library’s collections.

Only eighteen years old when she embarked on the novel, Shelley invented the archetype of the mad scientist who dares to flout the laws of nature. She created an iconic monster who spoke out against injustice and begged for sympathy while performing acts of shocking violence. The monster’s fame can be attributed to the novel’s theatrical and film adaptations. Comic books, film posters, publicity stills, and movie memorabilia reveal a different side to the story of Frankenstein, as reinterpreted in spinoffs, sequels, mashups, and parodies.

“The Morgan is in an excellent position to tell the rich story of Mary Shelley’s life and of Frankenstein’s evolution in popular culture,” said director of the museum, Colin B. Bailey. “Pierpont Morgan was fascinated by the creative process, and one of the artifacts he acquired was a first edition Frankenstein annotated by the author. The collection of works by the Shelleys, both at the Morgan and the New York Public Library, has only grown since then. We are very pleased to collaborate with the NYPL in presenting the full version of this extraordinary tale and how it lives on in the most resilient and timely of ways.”

A copiously illustrated companion volume, It’s Alive! A Visual History of Frankenstein, provides a vivid account of the artistic and literary legacy of the novel along with detailed descriptions of the highlights in the exhibition, while a new online curriculum offers high school teachers resources for the classroom.

The exhibition occupies two galleries: one documenting the life of Mary Shelley and the composition of her book, the other showing how the story evolved in the theater, cinema, and popular culture.

The Influence of the Gothic Style and Enlightenment Science

Benoît Pecheux, plate no. 4 in Giovanni Aldini, Essai théorique et expérimental sur le galvanisme (Paris: De l’imprimerie de Fournier Fils, 1804 / The Morgan Library & Museum, purchased on the Gordon N. Ray Fund, 2016; PML 196238).

Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus sprang from both a passion for Gothic style that pervaded British culture long before the author’s birth in 1797 and the influence of the discoveries of European Enlightenment science. Audiences loved the supernatural in all its formulations—ghosts, graveyards, mysterious strangers, secret warnings, lost wills, hidden pictures, and more. While novels were the primary vehicle for the Gothic, it was also popular with artists of paintings and prints, which were sometimes satirical—the Gothic was parodied as soon as it was taken seriously. The exhibition opens with the greatest horror painting of the eighteenth century, The Nightmare, painted in 1781 by the Swiss immigrant artist Henry Fuseli. Mary Shelley knew about this iconic image and may have used it in writing the climactic scene in Frankenstein.

Shelley was also influenced by the scientific endeavors of the time. She had been born into an age of scientific and technological discovery in Britain, when institutions like the Royal Society began fostering exploration and experimentation. Across Britain spread a thriving circuit of lectures and science demonstrations for the public. A few of these experiments have become part of the Frankenstein legend. While writing the novel, Shelley had been reading Humphry Davy’s Elements of Chemical Philosophy, and she knew about anatomical dissections, contemporary debates about the origins of life, and electrical experiments on corpses. She lends this fascination to Victor Frankenstein, who makes a monster from corpses in his “workshop of filthy creation.”

Mary Shelley’s Life and Conception of Frankenstein

Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley, Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus (London: Printed for Lackington, Hughes, Harding, Mavor & Jones, 1818). This specific copy, purchased by Pierpont Morgan in 1910, is part of The Carl H. Pforzheimer Collection of Shelley and His Circle at The Morgan Library & Museum.

Mary Shelley grew up in a radical and intellectual milieu, the daughter of writers famous in their own time, the feminist theorist Mary Wollstonecraft and the novelist and philosopher William Godwin. After her mother died in childbirth, her father married Mary Jane Clairmont, who had children of her own, and the teenaged Mary Godwin escaped a tense family atmosphere by making long visit to friends in Scotland. When she returned in 1814, she met the poet Percy Bysshe Shelley, already married and a father. They soon fell in love and eloped to Europe, the most decisive act of all their lives.

It was on a trip to Lake Geneva in 1816 accompanied by P.B. Shelley, Lord Byron, and her step-sister Claire Clairmont that Mary Godwin found the inspiration to write Frankenstein. During their stay, the party entertained themselves by reading aloud from a volume of Gothic tales. Byron suggested a contest to write ghost stories, and Shelley joined in energetically, looking for something “to curdle the blood, and quicken the beatings of the heart.” After days of frustrated effort, the idea came to her one night after hearing P.B. Shelley and Lord Byron discuss the origins of life and the possibility of animating a corpse by galvanic action.

“I saw—with shut eyes, but acute mental vision—I saw the pale student of unhallowed arts kneeling beside the thing he had put together.” She returned to England with the beginnings of a novel.

By 1817, she had finished a draft titled Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus. The book appeared in three volumes on January 1, 1818, after P. B. Shelley offered revisions and found a publisher. Luckily for posterity, most of the Frankenstein manuscript has survived, making it possible to see the author’s original ideas, her second thoughts, and her husband’s suggestions. Portions of the manuscript containing key passages in the novel will be on display at the Morgan.

Mary Shelley’s personal life was punctuated by tragedy in ways strangely similar to incidents in the novel. After settling in Italy in the spring of 1818 with her husband, their children William and Clara, step-sister Claire and her daughter Allegra, the family experienced constant sorrow as first William and Clara, and then Allegra died. Their grief was only partly assuaged by the birth of another child, Percy Florence. Through their mourning and marital difficulties, Mary Shelley and her husband maintained a strenuous routine of writing and study and friendships in the English and Italian communities. In July 1822, Shelley suffered a final devastating loss: P. B. Shelley sailed with his friend Edward Williams and their cabin boy to meet their friend Leigh Hunt’s family in Leghorn; on their return their boat met a sudden squall and they drowned.

Frankenstein on Stage and on Screen

When Mary Shelley returned to England in August 1823, one of the few bright spots was Richard Brinsley Peake’s melodrama Presumption! or, the Fate of Frankenstein: a theatrical hit, the play had made her famous. The actor Thomas Potter Cooke’s performance was the key factor: over six feet tall, clad in a gray-blue leotard, his exposed skin painted the same color, with a toga on top, he moved with lyrical athleticism and made the creature both frightening and pathetic. Mary Shelley saw one of Cooke’s performances and enjoyed it greatly. Other adaptations followed: at least fifteen dramas based on the novel were produced between 1823 and 1826.

Poster for Mary W. Shelley’s Frankenstein (New York: Grosset and Dunlap, 1931 / The Morgan Library & Museum, purchased on the Gordon N. Ray Fund, 2016; PML 196478. Courtesy of Universal Studios Licensing LLC, © 1931 Univeral Pictures Company, Inc).

A large portion of the exhibition is dedicated to the movies, which have played an essential role in popularizing the story and shaping our pop culture image of the monster. The earliest film of Frankenstein was made by the Edison Studios in 1910, but it is James Whale’s 1931 version that has taken such a prominent place in the popular psyche that it is now better known than the novel. The 1931 Frankenstein and 1935 Bride of Frankenstein gave us a radically reimagined version of the narrative, particularly the creation scene and Boris Karloff’s performance as the monster. James Whale and his special effects technicians introduced the high-voltage lab equipment and set the scene amidst the thunder and lightning now obligatory in horror movies. The creature’s violence was induced by his being tortured with fire. Karloff later said, “Over the years thousands of children wrote, expressing compassion for the great, weird creature who was so abused by its sadistic keeper that it could only respond to violence with violence. Those children saw beyond the make-up and really understood.” The 1935 sequel, with Elsa Lanchester playing both Mary Shelley and the creature’s bride, has also aged well. Both films create sympathy for the creature through his encounters with stupid and sadistic people, and both Karloff and Elsa Lanchester portray their characters with dignity and depth of emotion.

From the creation of the monster, to the creature’s killing of a small child, to violence committed against women, adaptations of Frankenstein again and again have returned to some of the most disturbing but recurring scenes of human experience. Mary Shelley’s unique contribution to culture is the creation of the monster. Her genius was to imagine a way to make life out of death; James Whale’s genius was to imagine a way to depict it in moving images and sound.

Whale’s Frankenstein films sparked a mass of cinematic energy. Other directors drew from it for years after with imitations and derivative films, a few just as frightening, some quite funny, none as haunting. The Morgan has borrowed a series of B-movie posters from a private collector and the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences to show some of the more faithful, comic, lurid, and execrable treatments of this theme

Makeup artists, perhaps, have come closer than anyone to bringing Victor Frankenstein’s story to life. Jack Pierce’s makeup gave the creature a new face in the 1931 film. Some highlights in the section include the sketches and photographs of this iconic appearance along with a gruesome torso model of Robert De Niro in Kenneth Branagh’s Frankenstein, provided by the Harry Ransom Center at the University of Texas, Austin.

The Creature’s Afterlife: Comic Books and Prints

The comic book as a separate slim magazine first appeared in 1933 as a promotional insert in newspapers, and Frankenstein has been part of this medium’s history from nearly the beginning. The exhibition includes some of the most interesting examples of the story, some aimed at children and some at adults.

Surprisingly few illustrators have taken on the novel’s challenge, but we present four of the best: Lynd Ward (remembered first of all as a wood engraver), Bernie Wrightson (a renowned comic book artist), Barry Moser (a celebrated book illustrator), and Pierre-Alain Bertola (a polymath Swiss artist who worked on a theatrical version of Frankenstein). All of them are working after, and against James Whale. All pay exquisite attention to Mary Shelley’s text and its ethical implications.

The exhibition closes with Barry Moser’s illustration of the Frankenstein family tomb, leaving us solidly in the tradition of Gothic art with which the show begins. Mary Shelley’s creature is a Gothic nightmare, but one who takes responsibility for himself. Even as his blood boils at the injustices committed against him, he is also “torn by the bitterest remorse.” Seeking quiet in death, he leaps onto his raft and is soon lost to human eyes. As mysterious and volatile in death as in life, Frankenstein’s monster leaves us with more questions than answers—perhaps the decisive reason why artists have been drawn to him for the past two hundred years.

Elizabeth Campbell Denlinger, It’s Alive! A Visual History of Frankenstein (New York: The Morgan Library & Museum, 2018), 336 pages, ISBN: 978-1512603422, $55.

Exhibition | Rosetsu: Ferocious Brush

Posted in books, catalogues, exhibitions by Editor on October 3, 2018

Nagasawa Rosetsu, Tiger, 1786 door panels from the Zen Temple Muryōji, Kushimoto.

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From the press release for the exhibition:

Rosetsu: Ferocious Brush / Rosetsu: Fantastische Bilderwelten aus Japan
Museum Rietberg, Zurich, 6 September — 4 November 2018

Curated by Khanh Trinh and Matthew McKelway

For eight weeks, Japan’s most famous tiger will reside exclusively at Museum Rietberg in Zurich. The story goes that the Japanese artist Nagasawa Rosetsu (1754–1799) painted this monumental tiger together with its counterpart, a dragon, on the sliding door panels of the Zen temple Muryōji in a single night in the year 1786. Now the entire temple’s painted walls and a number of other, awe-inspiring masterpieces by Rosetsu are being shown for the first time outside of Japan. Rosetsu’s highly dynamic paintings created with vigorous brushstrokes and sometimes with his fingers, but also his delicate compositions painted with fine brushes and rich colour are replete with energy, wit, and modern appeal.

Renowned as one of the most eccentric and imaginative artists in early modern Japan, Nagasawa Rosetsu (1754–1799) produced visually exciting, classification-defying works during his brief career. The exhibition Rosetsu: Ferocious Brush unravels the many mysteries of this enigmatic career. An exclusive and expert selection of works by Rosetsu chosen in consultation with the Agency for Cultural Affairs of the Government of Japan (Bunkachō) reveals his painting subjects, his relationship to Zen Buddhism, his contacts with patrons outside Kyoto, and his choice of extraordinarily bold images.

The exhibition at the Rietberg Museum will survey Rosetsu’s art through a selection of sixty of his most important paintings, beginning with the earliest works in the realist style of his teacher Maruyama Ōkyo (1733–1795) and ending with the haunting and occasionally bizarre final masterpieces of his career. Screen paintings, scrolls, and albums depicting Zen eccentrics, children at play, ethereal beauties, breathtaking landscapes, and vivacious animals and birds will take viewers on a journey through Rosetsu’s own travels and into his fantastic imagination. These works, some of them compellingly realistic and others surprisingly abstract, take us into an early modern Japan we did not know and which feels very contemporary.

The highlight of the exhibition will be a magnificent ensemble of 48 screens and hanging scrolls, displayed in a recreated original floorplan of the Zen temple Muryōji. This Zen temple in the southern part of Japan’s main island holds the largest and most important collection of Rosetsu’s paintings, created in 1786. Various stories recount the creation of this breathtaking ensemble. The installation of these works would present an unprecedented opportunity to view and examine the paintings in a single venue outside their home in Kushimoto, and indeed the first such installation of architecturally specific paintings in an exhibition outside Japan.

Approximately one-third of the works to be exhibited are registered as Important Cultural Properties or Important Art Objects. Complementing these masterpieces from Japan, paintings from museums, temples, and private collections in Japan, Europe, and the United States trace the phases of Rosetsu’s life as he pursued his livelihood in Kyoto and the surrounding provinces. The exhibition closes with a dramatic display of abstract landscapes, ghosts, and perhaps his most astonishing work of all, a depiction of 500 Disciples of the Buddha on a surface of only one square inch.

Rosetsu, who hailed from a low-ranking samurai family, gained his reputation among art circles in the imperial capital Kyoto and its neighbouring regions with his untamed personality and his unusual talent. The exhibits run the gamut of formats and subjects, from exquisitely executed scrolls depicting birds and flowers in brilliant polychrome pigments to large-scale sliding doors and folding screens with fantastic landscapes, bizarre figures, and adorable animals. With his unconventional compositions and powerful brushwork Rosetsu always offers a fresh take on traditional subject matter. His paintings never fail to surprise, entertain, and charm.

The show at the Museum Rietberg is the first comprehensive presentation ever to take place outside of Japan. The exhibition is jointly curated by Dr Khanh Trinh, Curator of Japanese art, Museum Rietberg, Zurich, and Professor Matthew McKelway, Takeo and Itsuko Atsumi Professor of Japanese art history; director of the Mary Griggs Burke Center for Japanese Art, Columbia University in the City of New York.

Khanh Trinh and Matthew McKelway, Rosetsu: Ferocious Brush (London: Prestel, 2018), 296 pages, ISBN: 978-3791357263, $60 / £45. Also available in German.

Exhibition | Isabelle de Borchgrave

Posted in books, catalogues, exhibitions by Editor on September 30, 2018

From The Frick Pittsburgh:

Isabelle de Borchgrave: Fashioning Art from Paper
Dixon Gallery and Gardens, Memphis, 15 October 2017 — 7 January 2018
The Society of the Four Arts, Palm Beach, 27 January — 15 April 2018
Oklahoma City Museum of Art, 16 June — 9 September 2018
The Frick Art Museum, Pittsburgh, 13 October 2018 — 6 January 2019
The Baker Museum, Artis, Naples, February — May 2019

Curated by Dennita Sewell

Isabelle de Borchgrave, Banyan and Waistcoat, 1998; inspired by a banyan and waistcoat ca. 1730 worn by Peter the Great of Russia.

Co-organized by the Frick in collaboration with four other American museums, this major exhibition presents the full breadth of de Borchgrave’s exploration of historical costume through contemporary paper sculpture. If you’ve never seen the artist’s work, you will be delighted by these breathtaking, life-size renditions of historic clothing created completely from artfully painted, pleated, crumpled, and manipulated paper.

From replicas of Renaissance Italian gowns to recreations of the fantastical modernist costumes of the Ballet Russes, Isabelle de Borchgrave’s work is meticulously crafted and astonishingly beautiful. The artist’s interest in creating paper costumes was sparked by a visit to the Metropolitan Museum of Art in 1994, where she found herself inspired by the historic costumes on display. Back in her studio, she began to experiment with creating renditions of the pieces in paper. Since then, de Borchgrave’s paper costumes have been featured in major exhibitions around the world.

This immersive exhibition celebrates the breadth of de Borchgrave’s work with costume and fashion history and is designed to introduce her work to a wider audience. De Borchgrave’s paper sculptures are masterpieces of trompe l’oeil—even upon close inspection it is often difficult to discern that the costumes are made of paper. At the Frick, de Borchgrave’s work will be exhibited throughout the museum, creating a dialogue with the museum’s collection. Joining the exhibition will be the Frick’s recently commissioned piece inspired by one of our best-known masterpieces—Peter Paul Rubens’ Portrait of Charlotte- Marguerite de Montmorency, Princess of Condé.

The exhibition will include examples from all the artist’s major series, beginning with her exploration of 300 years of fashion history in the works created for Papiers à la Mode. The works from her Splendors of the Medici series are inspired by Italian Renaissance costumes portrayed in Old Master paintings. Her next series, The World of Mariano Fortuny explored the work of the iconoclastic Spanish fashion designer, famously based in Venice, and her most recent series, Les Ballet Russes features fantastical modernist costumes designed by artists like Picasso, Bakst, and Matisse. The Frick’s recent commission will be the only new piece included in the exhibition. A fully illustrated color catalogue accompanies the exhibition.

Exhibition | The Chocolate Girl by Liotard

Posted in books, catalogues, exhibitions by Editor on September 29, 2018

Notice of the exhibition appeared at Enfilade in April, but here are the details for the catalogue, published in association with Hirmer Verlag:

Stephan Koja and Roland Enke, eds., ‘The Most Beautiful Pastel Ever Seen’: The Chocolate Girl by Jean-Étienne Liotard in the Dresden Gemäldegalerie (Munich: Hirmer Verlag, 2018), 272 pages, ISBN: 978-3777431369, $42.

The Chocolate Girl is one of the most famous works by the Swiss artist Jean-Étienne Liotard. This richly illustrated volume leads the reader through the age in which it was created during the French-inspired Rococo and into the Vienna of Empress Maria Theresia, where the work was painted. It also explains the art of pastel painting, in which this enchanting work has been executed. The painting had a tremendous effect in those days and still does so today. Even during Liotard’s life (1702–1789) his pastel painting was highly valued, as the description by the most famous pastel artist Rosalba Carriera as “the most beautiful pastel” demonstrates. The Chocolate Girl shows a simple, unknown domestic servant, until then a rarely chosen subject. In its sober and precise observation it reflects the art of the Enlightenment as well as anticipating the realism of the nineteenth century. Chocolate itself, always associated with pleasure, contributes further to the particular charm. Characteristic works from other creative periods complete the overview of Liotard’s oeuvre.

Exhibition | Tudors to Windsors: British Royal Portraits

Posted in books, catalogues, exhibitions by Editor on September 27, 2018

From the MFAH:

Tudors to Windsors: British Royal Portraits
Museum of Fine Arts, Houston, 7 October 2018 — 27 January 2019
Bendigo Art Gallery, 16 March — 14 July 2019

Tudors to Windsors: British Royal Portraits from Holbein to Warhol sheds new light on changing ideas of monarchy and nationhood in Britain. The exhibition features portraits of British royalty spanning 500 years, by artists from Hans Holbein and Sir Joshua Reynolds to Annie Leibovitz and Andy Warhol.

In a sweeping survey, Tudors to Windsors covers the cavalcade of kings, queens, princes, and princesses who have graced the British crown. The MFAH is the only U.S. venue to host this unprecedented exhibition, part of a major partnership with the National Portrait Gallery in London. Some 150 objects—most never before seen outside of England—tell the story of Britain’s monarchy through masterworks of painting, sculpture, and photography.

Visitors have an extraordinary opportunity to come face-to-face with the fascinating figures of British royalty. Tudors to Windsors explores four royal dynasties: the House of Tudor (1485–1603), the House of Stuart (1603–1714), the House of Hanover (1714–1901), and the present-day House of Windsor. Among the many works of art on view are portraits featuring King Henry VIII, Queen Elizabeth I, King George I, Queen Victoria, Queen Elizabeth II, Princess Diana, and Prince William.

Tudors to Windsors: British Royal Portraits, with an introduction by David Cannadine (London: National Portrait Gallery, 2018), 240 pages, ISBN 978-1855147560, $50.

Print Quarterly, September 2018

Posted in books, catalogues, exhibitions, journal articles, reviews by Editor on September 10, 2018

The eighteenth century in the current issue of Print Quarterly:

Print Quarterly 35.3 (September 2018) . . .

N O T E S  A N D  R E V I E W S

• Jean Michel Massing, Review of the collection of essays, Suzanne Karr Schmidt and Edward Wouk, eds., Prints in Translation, 1450–1750: Image, Materiality, Space (Routledge, 2016), pp. 305–08. “The eleven most interesting articles in Prints in Translation . . . developed from a two-day conference panel at the 2014 meeting of the College Art Association on ‘Objectifying Prints: Hybrid Media 1450–1800’ (305).” [Of particular interest to Enfilade readers will be the article by David Pullins, “The State of the Fashion Plate, circa 1727: Historicizing Fashion Between ‘Dressed Prints’ and Dezallier’s Recueils,” discussed briefly by Massing on pp. 307–08.]

• John Roger Paas, Review of the exhibition catalogue Tiphaine Gaumy, ed., Images & Révoltes dans le livre et l’estampe, XIVe–milieu du XVIIIe siècle (Bibliothèque Mazarine & Editions des Cendres, 2016), pp. 308–10. “This catalogue with its thirteen scholarly essays and numerous images—many not widely known—focuses on political events, but more importantly it underscores the seminal importance of all visual material for our general understanding of the past. It is clear that these images are not of secondary historical importance” (310).

• Julia McHugh, Review of Pedro German Leal and Rubem Amaral, eds., Emblems in Colonial Ibero-America: To the New World on the Ship of Theseus (Glasgow University Press, 2017), pp. 311–13. “The three sections of the book correspond to the three main colonies of the New World [New Spain, Peru, and Portuguese America]. In each section, two case studies follow a general survey of emblematic and symbolic culture, which foregrounds the distinct historical and geographical conditions of each administrative territory. These three preliminary essays by Víctor Mínguez, José Júlio García Arranz, and Rubem Amaral Jr. are extremely systematic and comprehensive and would be excellent additions to syllabi for colonial Latin American courses” (311).

• Thomas Döring, Review of Jef Schaeps, Edward Grasman, Elmer Kolfin, and Nelke Bartelings, eds., For Study and Delight: Drawings and Prints from Leiden University (Leiden University, 2017), pp. 313–15. “The book was published to mark the 200th anniversary of the 1814 bequest of Jan Theodore Royer’s print collection to the University of Leiden. This gift became the basis of the university’s Print Room founded in 1825. . . The publication aims to offer a representative cross-section of the collection. Carefully conceived and handsomely produced, it fully lives up to this claim and to its well-considered title” (313).

• Stephanie Dickey, Review of the exhibition catalogue, Victoria Sancho Lobis, with an essay by Maureen Warren, Van Dyck, Rembrandt, and the Portrait Print (Art Institute of Chicago, 2016), pp. 315–17. “This compact, handsomely produced publication documents an exhibition that featured 116 prints, two albums, and twenty portraits in other media, dating from 1522 to 1993, most from the Art Institute of Chicago’s own collection” (315).

• Rena Hoisington, Review of the exhibition catalogue, Anne-Lise Desmas, Edouard Kopp, Guilhem Scherf, and Juliette Trey, Bouchardon: Royal Artist of the Enlightenment (Getty Publications, 2017), pp. 318–21. “Prefaced by essays written by each of the four contributing curators, this beautifully produced and lavishly illustrated catalogue includes images of hundreds of sculptures, drawings, prints and illustrated books (and a few paintings) discussed according to theme or project, including Bouchardon’s work on two celebrated landmarks in eighteenth-century Paris: the elegant Grenelle Fountain that still graces the street from which it takes its name, completed in 1745; and the equestrian statue of King Louis XV that once presided over the Place Louis XV, begun in 1748, completed after Bouchardon’s death by the sculptor Jean-Baptiste Pigalle and destroyed in 1792” (318).

• Wendy Wassyng Roworth, Review of the exhibition catalogue, Bettina Baumgärtel, Anmut und Aufklärung: Eine Sammlung von Druckgraphik nach Werken von Angelika Kauffman (Harrassowitz, 2016), pp. 321–23. “An exhibition at the Winckelmann Museum in Stendhal, Germany . . . presented a selection of prints after Kauffman’s work . . . The exhibition catalogue includes examples of engraved reproductions by British and other printmakers . . . There is a detailed chronology of Kauffman’s life and work; an essay on prints after Kauffman and eighteenth-century printmaking; another essay on the Winckelmann portrait and its influence; a numbered catalogue of works exhibited; and a bibliography of cited sources. The catalogue of works exhibited is divided into sections according to subjects and themes Kauffman portrayed: self-portraits, portraits, mythology, scenes from Shakespeare and other poetry, Roman and early English history, allegory and genre” (322).

• Monika Hinkel, Review of the exhibition catalogue, Timothy Clark, ed., Hokusai: Beyond the Great Wave (Thames & Hudson, 2017), pp. 323–25. “The superb selection, incorporating paintings, woodblock prints, drawings, manuals and illustrated books selected from collections around the world illustrate well the versatility of Hokusai’s striking work. They not only portray the ingenious way in which he amalgamated Japanese-, Chinese- and European-inspired techniques, but also reveal his profound knowledge of mythology, history, the natural world and religion and his strong interest in draughtsmanship” (324–25).

• Stephen Clarke, Review of the book Lucy Peltz, Facing the Text: Extra-illustration, Print Culture, and Society in Britain, 1769–1840 (Huntington Library Press, 2017), pp. 353–55. “Peltz’s book is the product of some fifteen or more years of research, during which period she has published a number of related articles, most notably the correspondence of Granger and Bull in the Walpole Society volume for 2004. The result of her labours is by far the best and most detailed study of a phenomenon that has received surprisingly little scholarly attention. She divides the subject into three broadly chronological sections, using exemplars to tease out meanings and connections rather than aspiring to an impossible vision of encyclopaedic completeness” (354–55).

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Note (added 11 September 2018) — The original posting did not include quotations from the reviews.

Exhibition | Manufacturing Luxury

Posted in books, catalogues, exhibitions by Editor on August 27, 2018

Opening next month at the Cognacq-Jay, from the press release:

La Fabrique du Luxe: Les Marchands Merciers Parisiens au XVIIIe Siècle
Musée Cognacq-Jay, Paris, 29 September 2018 — 27 January 2019

Curated by Rose-Marie Herda-Mousseaux

Du 29 septembre 2018 au 27 janvier 2019, le musée Cognacq-Jay organise la toute première exposition consacrée à cette corporation particulièrement codi ée et incontournable dans la diffusion de l’art et du luxe français. À travers les destins de marchands comme Gersaint ou Duvaux, le musée présente une centaine d’œuvres d’art, de documents et d’archives illustrant les origines du luxe à la parisienne.

À la fois négociant, importateur, collecteur, designer et décorateur, le marchand mercier occupe un rôle majeur dans l’essor de l’industrie du luxe à cette époque. Personnage atypique, il entretient des liens dans la haute aristocratie et s’appuie sur un réseau international d’artistes comprenant les meilleures spécialités techniques et artistiques, qu’elles proviennent de Lyon ou de Chine. Les marchands merciers se trouvent au cœur d’un réseau à trois pôles : le commanditaire, l’artisan ou artiste et, phénomène nouveau à la puissance croissante, la « mode ». Aussi, pour se faire connaître et agrandir leurs réseaux, ils développent les mécanismes de la promotion publicitaire, avec le concours de dessinateurs anonymes ou d’artistes comme Boucher ou Watteau.

Dissoute durant la période révolutionnaire, cette corporation suscite encore aujourd’hui l’intérêt des historiens de l’art et d’universitaires qui en font leur sujet de recherches. Le parcours de l’exposition explore le contexte propice à l’épanouissement de ce réseau, les clefs de leur succès et leurs innovations, et s’attache à dépeindre quelques-uns de ses illustres représentants.

Les marchands merciers : une corporation unique
L’appellation “marchand mercier” provient du terme « mercerie » qui, s’il désigne de nos jours les articles liés à l’habillement et à la parure, était synonyme au XVIIIe siècle de « marchandise ». Les statuts de la corporation, codi és en 1613, permettent aux marchands de vendre des objets enjolivés ou assemblés par leurs soins ou de seconde main. Ainsi, au XVIIIe siècle, les marchands merciers deviennent incontournables dans la diffusion des arts et du luxe hors de la cour. Ils acquièrent auprès des manufactures de porcelaine ou des grandes compagnies de transport des objets qu’ils font monter à l’aide d’orfèvres, de bronziers ou d’ébénistes pour créer des pièces décoratives aux formes nouvelles.

Cartographie du luxe parisien
Paris réunit les ingrédients indispensables d’un marché du luxe en plein essor : capitaux, clientèle nombreuse, fournisseurs hautement quali és, large réseau artistique, proximité avec la cour… Il est possible d’identi er des quartiers privilégiés dans l’organisation de ce commerce : la rue Saint-Honoré, bien sûr, mais aussi le Palais de Justice et les rues Saint-Martin et Saint- Denis, où les marchands disposaient d’adresses physiques.

La naissance des stratégies publicitaires
Dans un secteur concurrentiel, les marchands doivent faire preuve d’une stratégie permanente. C’est ainsi que l’émergence des enseignes ou « marques » s’appuient sur des ressorts marketing novateurs : contrats d’exclusivités ou monopoles, identi cation de clients prestigieux dans les réclames ou encore création d’identité visuelle dont témoignent les enseignes et cartes de visite.

L’exemple de Gersaint : un marchand-mercier emblématique
En 1720, Antoine Watteau peint en seulement « huit matins », pour la boutique de son ami Gersaint, une enseigne remarquable qui fait l’admiration du Tout-Paris. Ce coup de publicité fait de Gersaint un des premiers marchands merciers à développer une image publicitaire soignée. Le musée Cognacq-Jay conserve une étude préparatoire de cette œuvre et présente une reconstitution du tableau original à grande échelle.

Commissariat
Rose-Marie Herda-Mousseaux, Conservateur en chef du patrimoine, directrice du musée Cognacq-Jay

La Fabrique du Luxe: Les Marchands Merciers Parisiens au XVIIIe Siècle (Paris-Musées, 2018), 176 pages, ISBN: 978-2759604005, 30€.

The Burlington Magazine, August 2018

Posted in books, catalogues, exhibitions, journal articles, reviews by Editor on August 25, 2018

The eighteenth century in The Burlington:

The Burlington Magazine 160 (August 2018)

A R T I C L E S

• Alessandro Spila, “Ferdinando Fuga’s Proposals for Displaying Relics in S. Maria Maggiore, Rome,” pp. 646–53. Recently identified drawings show Fuga’s initial design [produced in the 1740s] for a pair of nave platforms in S. Maria Maggiore intended for the display of relics displaced by the recent reorganization of the choir. They were not executed, almost certainly because they conflicted with Benedict XIV’s wish to see a radical simplification of the church’s interior.

R E V I E W S

• Claudia Bodinek, Review of the exhibitions 300 Years of the Vienna Porcelain Manufactory (MAK, 2018) and Eternally Beautiful: 300 Years of Vienna Porcelain (Augarten Porcelain Museum, 2018), pp. 674–75.
• Philippe Bordes, Review of the exhibition Napoleon: Power and Splendor (Virginia Museum of Fine Arts, 2018), pp. 676–78.
• Jonathan Yarker, Review of the exhibition The Great Spectacle: 250 Years of the Summer Exhibition (Royal Academy of Arts, 2018), pp. 678–81.
• Roberto Valeriani, Review of Teresa Leonor M. Vale, ed., The Art of the Valadiers (Umberto Allemandi, 2017), pp. 703–05.

 

Exhibition | 300 Years of the Vienna Porcelain Manufactory

Posted in books, catalogues, exhibitions by Editor on August 24, 2018

Claudius Innocentius, Du Paquier, Panther Bowl, ca. 1730, glazed, painted, and gilt porcelain, 8 × 25.5 × 10.3 cm
(Vienna: MAK)

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Now on view at Vienna’s MAK:

300 Years of the Vienna Porcelain Manufactory
MAK – Austrian Museum of Applied Arts / Contemporary Art, Vienna, 16 May — 23 September 2018

Curated by Rainald Franz and Michael Macek

With its wide-ranging jubilee exhibition 300 Years of the Vienna Porcelain Manufactory, the MAK is drawing attention to the history and significance of the second-oldest porcelain manufactory in Europe. Founded in May 1718 when the imperial privilege for porcelain production was granted to Claudius Innocentius Du Paquier, the Vienna Porcelain Manufactory set new aesthetic standards over the following decades. Some 1000 objects from the holdings of the MAK as well as national and international collections offer a formidable overview of Viennese developments in the context of Asian precursors and European competitors.

The MAK has housed the legacy of the Vienna Porcelain Manufactory—under imperial ownership from 1744 and closed in 1864—and has been dedicated to researching porcelain since its founding years. With examples from all eras of production, the legacy provides an overview of some 150 years of porcelain production in Vienna. Viennese porcelain production covered a wide spectrum of ceramics: from dinnerware sets and vases to clocks, from high-quality porcelain sculptures to scenic and floral miniatures, from porcelain paintings with cobalt blue and gold decorations in relief to large-format porcelain pictures with floral still lifes.

The exhibition 300 Years of the Vienna Porcelain Manufactory presents the latest research findings with as yet unpublished documents on major works by the Vienna Porcelain Manufactory, such as the porcelain room from the Palais Dubsky in Brno (ca. 1740) and the centerpiece from Zwettl Abbey (Vienna, 1767/68). Both the ‘Dubsky Room’, one of the first rooms to be decorated with European porcelain, and the centerpiece from Zwettl Abbey are on permanent display in the MAK Permanent Collection Baroque Rococo Classicism, designed by Donald Judd.

The catalogue is distributed by ACC Art Books:

Christoph Thun-Hohenstein and Rainald Franz, eds., 300 Jahre Wiener Porzellan / 300 Years of the Vienna Porcelain Manufactory (Stuttgart, Arnoldsche Art Publishers 2018), 272 pages, ISBN: 978-3897905306, 48€ / $85.

With contributions by Rainald Franz, Andreas Gamerith, Michael Macek, Errol Manners, Waltraud Neuwirth, Kathrin Pokorny-Nagel, A. Philipp Revertera, Elisabeth Schmuttermeier, Ulrike Scholda, Leonhard Weidinger and Johannes Wieninger and a foreword by Christoph Thun-Hohenstein.

C O N T E N T S

• Christoph Thun-Hohenstein, Viennese Porcelain as a Resonance
• Rainald Franz, Three Centuries of Viennese Porcelain and Three Centennials
• Rainald Franz and Michael Macek, The Dubsky Chamber and the MAK: An 18th-Century Aristocratic Porcelain Room and its History
• Andreas Gamerith, At a Loss for Words: The Zwettl Centerpiece and its Origins
• Rainald Franz, The Viennese Porcelain Set for the Duke of Wellington
• Errol Manners, The Travels of an Arcanist, Joseph Jakob Ringler
• Johannes Wieninger, Exemplars from East Asia
• Elisabeth Schmuttermeier, Porcelain versus Silver
• Michael Macek, The Hülfswerk von Engelhardtszell 1798–1809 and its Impact beyond 1809
• Waltraud Neuwirth, Johann Poysel, First Modelleur of the Vienna Porcelain Manufactory: His 1858 Journey to Limoges, Paris, Sèvres, Wallerfangen, and Nymphenburg
• Kathrin Pokorny-Nagel and Ulrike Scholda, The Museum as the Administrator of an Estate: The Closure of the Vienna Porcelain Manufactory and Transfer of Its Holdings to the Imperial Royal Austrian Museum of Art and Industry
• Leonhard Weidinger, The Viennese Porcelain Scene: The Museum and Private Collections
• Rainald Franz, Paul Wittgenstein’s Porcelain Room
• A. Philipp Revertera, Etcetera: Random Thoughts on Collecting (and) Viennese Porcelain
• Rainald Franz and Michael Macek, History of the Vienna Porcelain Manufactory 1718–1864 in its Cultural and Political Context

A Visual History of the Vienna Porcelain Manufactory
Claudius Innocentius Du Paquier, 1718–1744
Imperial Porcelain Manufactory Phase 1, 1744–1749
Imperial Porcelain Manufactory Phase 2, 1750–1783
Conrad Sörgel von Sorgenthal, 1784–1805
Matthias Niedermayer, 1805–1827
Benjamin von Scholz, 1827–1833
Andreas Baumgartner, 1833–1842
Franz von Leithner, 1842–1855
Alexander Löwe, 1856–1862
Alois Auer von Welsbach, 1862–1864
Augarten Porcelain Manufactory, since 1923–24