New Book | Animal Companions: Pets and Social Change

Posted in books by Editor on April 22, 2015

From Penn State UP:

Ingrid H. Tague, Animal Companions: Pets and Social Change in Eighteenth-Century Britain (University Park: Penn State University Press, 2015), 320 pages, ISBN: 978-0271065885, $70.

978-0-271-06588-5mdAlthough pets existed in Europe long before the eighteenth century, the dominant belief was that pet keeping was at best frivolous and at worst downright dangerous. In Animal Companions, Ingrid Tague explores the eighteenth-century conversation about the presence of pets in British society and the ways in which that conversation both reflected and shaped broader cultural debates. Tague argues that pets, as neither human nor fully part of the natural world, offered a unique way for Britons of the eighteenth century to articulate what it meant to be human and what their society ought to look like.

Having emerged from the Malthusian cycle of dearth and famine at the end of the seventeenth century, England became the wealthiest nation in Europe, with unprecedented access to consumer goods of all kinds. And closely connected with these material changes was the Enlightenment, with its implications for contemporary understanding of religion, science, and non-European cultures. All these transformations generated both excitement and anxiety, and they were reflected in debates over the rights and wrongs of human-animal relationships. Looking at a wide variety of texts, Tague shows how pets became both increasingly visible indicators of spreading prosperity and catalysts for debates about the morality of the radically different society emerging in this period.

Ingrid H. Tague is Associate Dean of Arts, Humanities, and Social Sciences and Associate Professor of History at the University of Denver.

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List of Illustrations

1  The Material Conditions of Pet Keeping
2  Domesticating the Exotic
3  Fashioning the Pet
4  A Privilege or a Right?
5  Pets and Their People


Basile Baudez on Architectural Drawings

Posted in lectures (to attend) by Editor on April 21, 2015

Coming up at MIT’s HTC Forum, the main lecture series of the History, Theory, and Criticism of Architecture and Art Program:

Basile Baudez | Drawing for the Prize: Architectural
Competition Drawings from Europe to America
School of Architecture and Planning, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, 5 May 2015

P1010244This talk will adopt the premise that architectural training as it was conceived in France in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries was aimed more directly at producing drawings than buildings. The relatively limited existing scholarship on architectural drawings in a pedagogical context has been dominated, however, almost exclusively by concern for the subjects assigned—which is to say the final, built result. This approach has failed to address the question of the drawings as objects rather than illustrations and more particularly their status as the product of a complex institutional apparatus that taught and rewarded a codified system of architectural representation. This talk considers not only the questions of why and how a French Beaux-Arts model became dominant in dialogue with shifts in institutional structures but also the story of its discontents when alternate means of representation that the Beaux-Arts system had suppressed were revived and explored by those outside the academic establishment.

Architects trained with Legeay and deeply influenced by Piranesi, legitimated a separation between the representation and the actual project itself and taught students to draw ‘des tableaux d’architecture’. Students of the Académie de France à Rome in particular began to make use of expressive techniques that were until then considered exclusively the domain of the pictorial or plastic arts. Variations in ornamentation or distribution were conveyed through affective juxtapositions of color and daring application of pigment that held little to no relationship with the realities of the projected building. The proximity between architects and painters in the second half of the eighteenth century became institutionalized after the Revolution at the École des Beaux-Arts, where architects were trained in the same building as painters, sculptors, and engravers and where draftsmen across media shared life and perspective drawing classes.

During the first years of the nineteenth century, and particularly during the Napoleonic Empire, a reaction against such dramatic pictorial effects encouraged students to restrain their chromatic palette, to refine their lines and to lay stress on the precision with which they represented ornaments and sculpture. Monochromes were prized, resulting in a new value placed on mastering shading and wash, which was to become one of the defining characteristics of the Beaux-Arts style.  Over the course of the century wash would provide an arena for experimenting with conventional uses of color and the production of abstract forms that tread carefully between providing a satisfying degree of detail without distracting the viewer or compromising a harmonious whole. In the ateliers of Vaudoyer, Percier and Lebas, students were taught how to animate the surroundings (notably natural elements, such as water, lawns, isolated trees, etc.) in order to produce the most affective architectural renderings of the century. While their most dominant features had little to do with the structures depicted they would emerge as the key models of academic architectural training at the end of the nineteenth century throughout Europe and the United States.

Basile Baudez received his PhD from the Ecole pratique des hautes études in Paris in 2006 and published his dissertation at the Presses universitaires de Rennes under the title Architecture et tradition académique au siècle des Lumières. He is currently associate professor in art and architectural history at the Paris-Sorbonne University. His current book project addresses the rise and dominance of the Beaux-Arts style in architectural drawing in Europe and America from the eighteenth through twentieth centuries.

Exhibition | Consuming Passions: Luxury Shopping in Georgian Britain

Posted in exhibitions by Editor on April 19, 2015

From Fairfax House:

Consuming Passions: Luxury Shopping in Georgian Britain
Fairfax House, York, 28 May — 31 December 2015


Meissen Chocolate pot, ca 1735 (National Trust, #1245591.1)

The Georgian age, an era of wealth, industry and empire, saw consumerism—the appetite to acquire, to possess, and to display—becoming an increasingly important social and economic phenomenon. Greater numbers of the aspiring middle classes saw their disposable income increase and shopping for luxury items became a way of displaying one’s status in society. The selection and purchase of goods was transformed into a pleasurable pursuit in its own right and shopping became a fashionable leisure and social activity for both sexes.

Consuming Passions: Luxury Shopping in Georgian Britain seeks to explore the world of luxury consumption and Georgian polite shopping in the eighteenth century. Focusing on luxury objects and commodities—such as those required to furnish, fill and decorate homes in the latest taste, to clothe and accessorise, to entertain or simply satisfy the desire for the novel, a significant component of the exhibition will look at the retail experiences and shopping practices of wealthy Georgian Society. Taking its cue from the Fairfaxes, who were discerning customers and from whose household we are fortunate to have a rich archival depository to draw upon, the exhibition will examine the broader retail landscape of Georgian Britain as well as that of burgeoning provincial centres of polite society.

Call for Essays | The Mediality of Sugar

Posted in Calls for Papers by Editor on April 18, 2015

From H-ArtHist:

The Mediality of Sugar
Edited by Nadja Gernalzick, and Joseph Imorde

Proposals due by 1 June 2015; completed essays due by 30 November 2015

“Sugar is not a vegetable.” Other than as a natural substance, sugar—the food—may be conceptualized as a medium, or so the quotation from Gertrude Stein’s Tender Buttons (1914) suggests. This call for contributions proposes a conceptualization of food as medium and takes the mediality of food by the example of sugar as a point of departure. Cane sugar has certainly mediatized and modified many peoples, cultures, and political or economic systems, in colonialism, slavery, capitalism, and in today’s world of a global food industry. In literature or works of the visual arts, sugar has a distinct iconography and is found in manifold metaphorical and figural uses. Examples are James Grainger’s georgic poem The Sugar-Cane of 1764, Phillis Wheatley’s brief “On Being Brought from Africa to America” of 1773, Jean Toomer’s modernist prose Cane of 1923, Edwidge Danticat’s historical novel The Farming of Bones of 1998, or Kara Walker’s sculpture with social intervention A Subtlety; or, The Marvelous Sugar Baby of 2014.

If sugar is read as a medium, the appearance of sugar in a novel, for instance, is a case of intermedial reference. Walker’s sculpture may be media combination, in the media-theoretical differentiations argued by Irina Rajewsky, among others. It may be that it has only become possible to recognize sugar and other foods as media since the technology and design that is part of any agri’culture’ and food production has today become obvious, or, readily observable to the consumer. In a communication studies model of mediality, food may be conceptualized as a message from the producer to the consumer. Sugar, as food, carries manifold significations regarding class, gender, race, sexuality, and other categories of identification. (more…)

Colin Bailey Named as New Director of the Morgan

Posted in museums by Editor on April 18, 2015

Press release (16 April 2015) from the Morgan:

The Board of Trustees of the Morgan Library & Museum today announced the appointment of Colin B. Bailey, director of the Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco, as the Morgan’s new director. He succeeds William M. Griswold who left last year to head the Cleveland Museum of Art.


Colin B. Bailey, Photography by Randy Dodson, © FAMSF

“We are delighted that Colin Bailey has agreed to become the new director of the Morgan,” said Lawrence Ricciardi, president of the museum’s board. “He is a scholar of the highest order with an impressive record of leadership at a number of outstanding museums. Moreover, he has extensive knowledge of New York cultural institutions and of the philanthropic world, and also brings to the Morgan valuable international experience.”

Bailey is a highly regarded specialist on 18th-century French art and a recognized authority on the work of Pierre-Auguste Renoir. He earned his Doctor of Philosophy in Art History from the University of Oxford. Prior to joining the Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco, Bailey held a variety of positions over thirteen years at New York’s Frick Collection, including serving as deputy director and the Peter Jay Sharp Chief Curator.

“To direct the Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco has been an extraordinary privilege,” Bailey said, in accepting the position at the Morgan. “But the opportunity to return to New York and lead an institution with the reputation of the Morgan was irresistible. Its collections are not only among the most recognized internationally, but also among the most diverse, touching on so many forms of creative expression, from drawing and literature to music, photography, and the arts of the ancient and medieval worlds. There is no place quite like it in the United States, and I look forward to working with its staff, trustees, and supporters to maintain and deepen the Morgan’s preeminent role as a cultural institution—one with the highest standards and a commitment to making its holdings widely accessible.”

Bailey has previously been deputy director and chief curator at the National Gallery of Canada, in Ottawa, senior curator at the Kimbell Art Museum in Ft. Worth, Texas, and held curatorial posts at the Philadelphia Museum of Art and the J. Paul Getty Museum in Los Angeles earlier in his career.

He has been responsible for many celebrated exhibitions. These include Renoir, Impressionism, and Full-Length Painting (2012); Watteau to Degas: French Drawings from the Frits Lugt Collection (2009); and Gabriel de Saint-Aubin (1724–1780) (2007), all mounted at the Frick Collection in New York; Renoir Landscapes, 1865–1883 (2007), The Age of Watteau, Chardin and Fragonard: Masterpieces of 18th-century French Genre Painting (2003), and Renoir’s Portraits: Impressions of an Age (1997), at the National Gallery of Canada; and The Loves of the Gods: Mythological Painting from Watteau to David (1992), at the Philadelphia Museum of Art. His book, Patriotic Taste: Collecting Modern Art in Pre-Revolutionary Paris, was awarded the Mitchell Prize for the best art history book of 2002–2003, and in 2011 he authored the well-received Fragonard’s Progress of Love at The Frick Collection.

Bailey has taught graduate seminars in 18th-century French art at Bryn Mawr College, Columbia University, and the City University of New York Graduate Center, and has acted as a spokesperson in video, podcast, and broadcast media nationally and internationally. An Officier de L’Ordre des Arts et des Lettres since 2010, Bailey has been recognized by the Foundation for Italian Art and Culture with its 2013 FIAC Excellency Award. He is also a board member of the Burlington Magazine Foundation and the Scientific Committee of Arthéna.

The Morgan Library & Museum’s holdings, which number well over a half million objects, are principally in the western European and American traditions. Its collections of drawings and prints, books and bindings, and illuminated manuscripts are preeminent among U.S. institutions. Literary, historical, and music manuscripts holdings, as well as other specialized collections, are also considered among the world’s greatest. The museum’s critically acclaimed 2006 addition by award-winning architect Renzo Piano deftly connected three historic buildings dating to the 19th and early 20th centuries around a central, glass-enclosed court. The expansion also doubled the museum’s gallery space, allowing the institution to mount over a dozen special exhibitions a year. In 2010, the Morgan restored for the first time its landmark 1906 McKim building, which was the personal library of the museum’s founder, financier and philanthropist Pierpont Morgan.

Bailey becomes the Morgan’s sixth director. Belle da Costa Greene became the first director of the newly public institution in 1924, having presided over the private Morgan library since 1906. She was succeeded by Frederick B. Adams, Jr. in 1948, Charles Ryskamp in 1969, Charles E. Pierce, Jr. in 1987, and William M. Griswold in 2008.

The Landmark Trust Turns 50

Posted in on site by Editor on April 17, 2015

The Landmark Trust turns fifty in May:

The Landmark Trust’s Golden Weekend
50 Landmark Open Days in the UK, 16–17 May 2015


The Dining Room at 13 Princelet Street, Spitalfields, London, built ca. 1718–19. The Landmark Trust is featured in House & Garden (May 2015), pp. 134–39. Photo by Ben Quinton.

The Landmark Trust is a charity that rescues important buildings that would otherwise be lost. We take on historic places in danger and carefully and sensitively restore them. By making them available for holidays, we make sure they can be enjoyed by all, both today and for future generations. We have in our care nearly 200 buildings in Britain and several in Italy and France. Though they range from the sober to the spectacular, all our buildings are rich in history and atmosphere. They include picturesque pavilions and medieval long-houses, artillery forts and Gothick follies, clan chiefs’ castles and cotton weavers’ cottages, the homes of great writers and the creations of great architects, from Browning to Boswell, from Pugin to Palladio.

In the month we were founded, we will open 25 Landmarks for a special, celebratory open weekend across England Scotland and Wales, many never before or only rarely open to the public. The buildings have been carefully picked so that 95% of the British population will be within 50 miles of an open Landmark.

At 3pm on 16 May 2015 local groups, community choirs, bands, bell ringers and musicians of all sorts will simultaneously perform a specially commissioned Anthem for Landmark by acclaimed young composer Kerry Andrew. We hope this will unite Landmarkers and local communities across the country in a wonderful shared celebration.

More information about the weekend is available here»

Belmont, Landmark Trust property, Lyme Regis, Dorset

Richard Samuel Coade, Belmont (Lyme Regis, Dorset), built before 1784, at which point it became the home of Eleanor Coade; appropriately the house showcases the eponymous artificial stone she pioneered.

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One of The Landmark Trust’s latest project, Belmont is scheduled to open later this year:

Belmont (Lyme Regis, Dorset) is a fine, early example of a maritime villa, a new building type that sprang up in the second half of the 18th century with the rising popularity of sea bathing and holidays by the seaside. Our research has shown that the house was built before 1784 by Samuel Coade. This is the date he transferred the house to his niece, Mistress Eleanor Coade (1733–1821), one of the most intriguing figures in 18th-century architecture.

Our project will rescue Belmont from decay and restore it to its late-Georgian glory, creating a Landmark which will sleep 8 people. As it was once Mrs Coade’s holiday villa, so it will be used for holidays again, with its original features repaired and reinstated.

Thanks to a hugely generous financial bequest to Landmark by the late Mrs Shelagh Preston, the fundraising appeal for Belmont has now reached its target. We are so grateful to everyone who supported Belmont, helping us to raise a total of £1.8m.

Romantic Illustration Network

Posted in resources by Editor on April 17, 2015


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From RIN:

The Romantic Illustration Network (RIN) restores to view the importance of book illustration and visual  culture in the Romantic period, but also across the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. RIN brings together scholars working on poetry, prose, the printed book, visual culture, and painting from roughly 1750–1850 to share research and to develop new models for understanding the relationship between word and image in the period, between large and small scale work, and between painting, print and illustration.

We are collaborating with Tate Britain to enhance the Tate’s collection of literary prints and paintings. RIN will foreground artists who have been unduly ignored, and return attention to well-known artists in unfamiliar roles. We aim to recapture lost cultures of looking and of reading, restoring the link between word and image not only in book illustration but in the wider literary and visual culture. Our programme of events will take as starting point in turn the artist, the author, the gallery and the economics of print. We will produce an edited collection of essays and it is hoped that this network will form the basis for a longer research project.

The RIN blog is available here»

New Book | Romanticism and Caricature

Posted in books by Editor on April 17, 2015

From Cambridge UP:

Ian Haywood, Romanticism and Caricature (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2013), 242 pages, ISBN: 978-1107044210, £60.

coverIan Haywood explores the ‘Golden Age’ of caricature through the close reading of key, iconic prints by artists including James Gillray, George and Robert Cruikshank, and Thomas Rowlandson. This approach both illuminates the visual and ideological complexity of graphic satire and demonstrates how this art form transformed Romantic-era politics into a unique and compelling spectacle of corruption, monstrosity and resistance. New light is cast on major Romantic controversies including the ‘revolution debate’ of the 1790s, the impact of Thomas Paine’s ‘infidel’ Age of Reason, the introduction of paper money and the resulting explosion of executions for forgery, the propaganda campaign against Napoleon, the revolution in Spain, the Peterloo massacre, the Queen Caroline scandal, and the Reform Bill crisis. Overall, the volume offers important new insights into the relationship between art, satire and politics in a key period of history.

Ian Haywood is Professor of English and Co-Director of the Centre for Research in Romanticism at the University of Roehampton. He co-edited, with John Seed, The Gordon Riots: Politics, Culture and
Insurrection in Late Eighteenth-Century Britain
(Cambridge University
Press, 2012).

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Introduction: The Recording Angel
1  Milton’s monsters | James Gillray, Sin, Death and the Devil (1792)
2  Lethal money: forgery and the Romantic credit crisis | James Gillray, Midas (1797), George Cruikshank and William Hone, Bank Restriction Note (1819)
3  The aesthetics of conspiracy | James Gillray, Exhibition of a Democratic Transparency (1799)
4  The spectral tyrant: Napoleon and the English dance of death | Thomas Rowlandson, The Two Kings of Terror (1813)
5  The spectropolitics of Romantic infidelism | George Cruikshank, The Age of Reason (1819)
6  The British inquisition | George Cruikshank and William Hone, Damnable Association (1821)
7  The return of the repressed: Henry Hunt and the Reform Bill crisis | William Heath/Charles Jameson Grant, Matchless Eloquence (1831).

Select Bibliography

Exhibition | Charles de La Fosse: The Triumph of Color

Posted in books, conferences (to attend), exhibitions by Editor on April 16, 2015

Now on view at Versailles:

Charles de La Fosse, le triomphe de la couleur
Château de Versailles, 24 February — 24 May 2015
Musée des Beaux-Arts, Nantes, 19 June — 20 September 2015

Curated by Béatrice Sarrazin, Adeline Collange-Perugi, and Clémentine Gustin-Gomez

canvasAlthough almost forgotten over the past two centuries, Charles de La Fosse (1636–1716) introduced a great many new ideas during the reign of Louis XIV, of whom he was a contempory. His work bears testimony to the artistic development of Charles Le Brun under whom he studied, and that of Antoine Watteau, a close friend. Considered to be one of the greatest painters of his time, Charles de La Fosse contributed to all the royal worksites at the Tuileries, the Palace of Versailles and the Invalides, while still devoting a large amount of time to private commissions. His body of work is equally exceptional for his numerous drawings, in particular those using the ‘trois crayons’ technique (black, red, white).

Charles de La Fosse’s work can be admired throughout the Palace, as an introduction to the monographic exhibition devoted to him in Madame de Maintenon’s Apartement. The display of major compositions in the Royal Chapel, the Diana Room and the Apollo Room—restored for the occasion—reveals La Fosse to be one of the main creators behind the decoration in Versailles.

The exhibition at the end of the tour of the State Apartments highlights the different aspects of the artist’s talent, inspired by the masters of the Académie (Poussin and Le Brun), and strongly influenced by contact with Venetian (Titian and Veronese) and Flemish (Rubens and Van Dyck) paintings to produce light seductive paintings with glowing colours. Preferring colour to lines, La Fosse’s work was extremly innovative and makes him one of the great pioneers of the 18th century.

A colloquium Charles de La Fosse et les arts en France autour de 1700 is scheduled for 18–19 May 2015 (see the website for the Centre de recherche du château de Versailles).

The full press packet for the exhibition is available as PDf file here»

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From Dessin Original:

Béatrice Sarrazin, Adeline Collange-Perugi et Clémentine Gustin, Charles de La Fosse (Paris: Somogy, 2015), 240 pages, ISBN: 978-2757209158, 35€.

9782757209158_CharlesDeLaFosse_LeTriompheDeLaCouleur_CATEXPO_Versailles_2015Publié à l’occasion de la première exposition monographique consacrée à Charles de La Fosse, l’ouvrage met en lumière les différentes facettes du talent de l’artiste qui, puisant ses racines chez les maîtres de l’Académie (Nicolas Poussin et Charles Le Brun), sait se renouveler au contact de la peinture vénitienne (Titien et Paul Véronèse) et flamande (Pierre Paul Rubens et Antoine Van Dyck) pour créer une peinture séduisante et légère, aux coloris chatoyants. Favorisant la couleur plutôt que la ligne, l’œuvre de La Fosse, extrêmement novatrice, fait de ce peintre l’un des grands précurseurs du XVIIIe siècle.

Quelque peu tombé dans l’oubli ces deux derniers siècles, Charles de La Fosse (1636–1716) est pourtant le grand introducteur des idées nouvelles sous le règne de Louis XIV dont il est l’exact contemporain. Son œuvre témoigne de l’évolution de la création artistique, de Charles Le Brun, dont il fut l’élève, à celle d’Antoine Watteau, un ami proche. Considéré comme l’un des meilleurs peintres de son temps, Charles de La Fosse participe à tous les chantiers royaux des Tuileries, du château de Versailles et des Invalides, tout en consacrant une grande part de son activité aux commandes privées. Son œuvre est aussi remarquable par ses nombreux dessins, notamment ceux à la technique des trois crayons (pierre noire, sanguine, rehauts de blanc).

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Charles de La Fosse tel qu’en lui-même, ALAIN MÉROT
Charles de La Fosse: un parcours novateur, CLÉMENTINE GUSTIN-GOMEZ
Charles de La Fosse à Versailles, BÉATRICE SARRAZIN
Charles de La Fosse: de Le Brun à Louvois, NICOLAS MILOVANOVIC
Charles de La Fosse: Les amours des dieux, ADELINE COLLANGE-PERUGI
Entre ligne et couleur: Réflexions sur les dessins de Charles de La Fosse, BÉNÉDICTE GADY
Charles de La Fosse en son temps, FRÉDÉRIQUE LANOË
Un coup de tonnerre (ou plutôt un coup de foudre), PIERRE ROSENBERG

New Book | Charles-Joseph Natoire and the Académie de France in Rome

Posted in books by Editor on April 15, 2015

The latest volume in the Oxford University Studies in the Enlightenment (previously SVEC) book series:

Reed Benhamou, Charles-Joseph Natoire and the Académie de France in Rome: A Re-evaluation (Oxford: Voltaire Foundation, 2015), 254 pages, ISBN: 978-0729411622, £60 / €83 / $89.

9780729411622In 1752 Charles-Joseph Natoire, then a highly successful painter, assumed the directorship of the prestigious Académie de France in Rome. Twenty-three years later he was removed from office, criticised as being singularly inept. What was the basis for this condemnation that has been perpetuated by historians ever since? Reed Benhamou’s re-evaluation of Natoire’s life and work at the Académie is the first to weigh the prevailing opinion against the historical record.

The accusations made against Charles-Joseph Natoire were many and varied: that his artistic work was increasingly unworthy of serious study; that he demeaned his students; that he was a religious bigot; that he was a fraudulent book-keeper. Benhamou evaluates these and other charges in the light of contemporary correspondences, critics’ assessment of his work, legal briefs, royal accounts and the parallel experiences of his precursors and successors at the Académie. The director’s role is shown to be multifaceted and no director succeeded in every area. What is arresting is why Natoire was singled out as being uniquely weak, uniquely bigoted, uniquely incompetent. The Charles-Joseph Natoire who emerges from this book differs in nearly every respect from the unflattering portrait promulgated by historians and popular media. His increasingly iconoclastic students rebelled against the traditional qualities valued by the French artistic elite; the Académie went underfunded because of the effects of war and a profligate king, and he was caught between two competing institutional regimes. In this book Reed Benhamou not only unravels the myth and reality surrounding Natoire, but also also sheds light on the workings of the institution he served for nearly a quarter of a century.

Reed Benhamou is a Professor Emerita at Indiana University. Her research focuses on the educational programmes offered by royal, municipal and private art academies in Paris, Rome and the French provinces. Her many publications include Regulating the Académie: Art, Rules, and Power in Ancien Régime France, SVEC 2009:08.

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Part I, 1700–1751
1  In the bosom of the family (Natoire, 1751)
2  His gift for painting (d’Antin, 1723)
3  The brilliant verve of Natoire and Boucher (Locquin, 1912)
4  Natoire is the most qualified (Tournehem, 1750)

Part II, 1752–1777
5  It seems necessary to pass some time in Rome (Perrault, 1664)
6  A deep understanding of what is required (d’Antin, 1708)
7  My position requires it (Natoire, 1755)
8  Completely inadequate for a difficult time (Lecoy, 1874)
9  This strayed lamb (Natoire, 1753)
10  Never a more singular case (Mémoires secrets, 1768)
11  I’ve been advancing money to the Academy for a long time (Natoire, 1773)
12  I must obey and conform (Natoire, 1775)

Appendix 1: Natoire and art (1737–1777)
Appendix 2: Natoire and money (1752–1777)


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