Enfilade

New Book | Gainsborough’s Blue Boy

Posted in books by Editor on August 27, 2019

From Routledge:

Valerie Hedquist, Class, Gender, and Sexuality in Thomas Gainsborough’s Blue Boy (New York, Routledge, 2019), 202 pages, ISBN: 978-1138543423, $150.

The reception of Thomas Gainsborough’s Blue Boy from its origins to its appearances in contemporary visual culture reveals how its popularity was achieved and maintained by diverse audiences and in varied venues. Performative manifestations resulted in contradictory characterizations of the painted youth as an aristocrat or a ‘regular fellow’, as masculine or feminine, or as heterosexual or gay. In private and public spaces where viewers saw the actual painting and where living and rendered replicas circulated, Gainsborough’s painting was often the centerpiece where dominant and subordinate classes met, gender identities were enacted, and sexuality was implicitly or overtly expressed.

Valerie Hedquist is Professor of Art History at the University of Montana.

C O N T E N T S

List of Figures
List of Plates
Acknowledgments

Introduction
1  Private Beginnings, Public Performances
The Blue Boy from Gainsborough’s Showroom to Grosvenor’s Picture Gallery
3  Public Recognition
4  Reproducing The Blue Boy
5  Farewell to England
6  Welcome to America
7  Changing Roles for The Blue Boy
Conclusion

Bibliography
Index

Exhibition | Lansyer, Canaletto, & Piranesi

Posted in books, catalogues, exhibitions by Editor on August 26, 2019

Now on view at the Lansyer House Museum:

Lansyer, Canaletto, and Piranesi: Images of Italy
Maison-Musée Lansyer, Loches, 1 May — 11 November 2019

Après plus d’un an de travaux, la Maison-Musée Lansyer de Loches redevient le théâtre d’une exposition d’envergure mettant en évidence les richesses de ses collections. Du 1er mai au 11 novembre 2019, l‘exposition Lansyer, Canaletto & Piranèse : images d’Italie invite le visiteur au voyage en Italie, à Rome et à Venise, dans les pas du peintre paysagiste Emmanuel Lansyer (1835–1893). Ce circuit au temps du chemin de fer conduit sur les lieux de travail de l’artiste, dans la Rome Éternelle et au cœur de la Sérénissime Venise. Lansyer livre ses impressions sur ces deux villes, mais aussi les difficultés qu’il rencontre pour les représenter. Ainsi, les toiles de l’artiste font visiter la campagne romaine et les quartiers de Venise.

« Portraitiste de ville », Lansyer s’inscrit dans les pas de deux maîtres italiens du siècle précédent : Piranèse et Canaletto. Lansyer acquiert des séries exceptionnelles de gravures à l’eau-forte de ces grands védutistes qui célèbrent la grandeur de Rome et de Venise. Cette collection lochoise constitue l’un des ensembles les plus complets à l’échelle mondiale. Ces œuvres sont le résultat d’un travail artistique d’une extrême précision, dont on pourra admirer les détails, du tracé architectural de Piranèse au geste léger de Canaletto.

Enfin, Lansyer convie à un voyage au temps de la photographie naissante. Cet art en plein essor offre une autre image d’Italie, celle de son peuple et de ses richesses patrimoniales. Les photographies de Rome donnent à voir de très beaux points de vue sur la basilique Saint-Pierre et le forum romain. Celles de Venise s’intéressent aux lieux les plus emblématiques de la reine de la lagune : la place Saint-Marc, le Grand Canal et ses palais. On chemine également à travers des ruelles étroites et autour des puits dans lesquels s’approvisionnent Vénitiens et Vénitiennes en habits traditionnels. Autant de souvenirs de voyage et d’outils de travail pour l’artiste.Au total, une centaine d’œuvres, tableaux, photographies et gravures de la collection d’Emmanuel Lansyer, sont dévoilés au public de manière inédite. Une collection d’une richesse exceptionnelle, léguée à la Ville de Loches par l’artiste, pour l’agrément de tous. Guide de voyage en poche, montez dans le train et devenez un touriste du XIXe siècle le temps de la visite de l’exposition…

The catalogue is available from In Fine éditions d’art:

Lansyer, Canaletto & Piranèse : Images d’Italie (Paris: In Fine éditions d’art, 2019), 112 pages, ISBN: 978-2902302192, 18€.

Sous la direction de Véronique Lourme, responsable du Service Patrimoine de la Ville de Loches; Gilles Bertrand, professeur d’histoire moderne à l’Université de Grenoble; Manuel Royo, professeur d’archéologie et d’histoire de l’art à l’Université François-Rabelais de Tours; Annie Gilet, conservateur en chef honoraire du patrimoine; et Benjamin Bulte, étudiant en histoire de l’art, Université François-Rabelais de Tours.

S O M M A I R E

• Emmanuel Lansyer : un peintre paysagiste en Italie

Le Voyage en Italie au XIXe Siècle
• Lansyer et la tradition du voyage en Italie
• Les conditions et le temps du voyage

Le Voyage à Rome
• Lansyer à Rome ou l’histoire d’une déception
• Les vues de Rome par Piranèse

Le Voyage à Venise
• Le regard de Lansyer sur la Sérénissime
• Canaletto, graveur à l’eau-forte

Le Portrait de Ville
• Résonances entre Canaletto, Piranèse et Lansyer : trois portraitistes de villes
• La photographie : un nouvel outil de travail pour le portrait de ville
• Un voyage dans le temps, dans les pas d’un artiste collectionneur

Catalogue des Oeuvres
• La collection de peintures
• La collection de gravures
• La collection de photographies

Bibliographie

New Book | Handbook on the Reception of Classical Architecture

Posted in books by Editor on August 23, 2019

From Routledge:

Nicholas Temple, Andrzej Piotrowski, and Juan Manuel Heredia, eds., The Routledge Handbook on the Reception of Classical Architecture (London: Routledge, 2019), 592 pages, ISBN: 978-1138047112, $220.

This is the first comprehensive study of the reception of classical architecture in different regions of the world. Exploring the impact of colonialism, trade, slavery, religious missions, political ideology, and intellectual/artistic exchange, the authors demonstrate how classical principles and ideas were disseminated and received across the globe. By addressing a number of contentious or unresolved issues highlighted in some historical surveys of architecture, the chapters presented in this volume question long-held assumptions about the notion of a universally accepted ‘classical tradition’ and its broadly Euro-centric perspective.

Featuring thirty-two chapters written by international scholars from China, Europe, Turkey, North America, Mexico, Australia, and New Zealand, the book is divided into four sections: 1) Transmission and Re-conceptualisation of Classical Architecture; 2) Classical Influence through Colonialism, Political Ideology and Religious Conversion; 3) Historiographical Surveys of Geographical Regions; and 4) Visual and Textual Discourses. This fourfold arrangement of chapters provides a coherent structure to accommodate different perspectives of classical reception across the world, and their geographical, ethnographic, ideological, symbolic, social, and cultural contexts. Essays cover a wide geography and include studies in Italy, France, England, Scotland, the Nordic countries, Greece, Austria, Portugal, Romania, Germany, Poland, India, Singapore, China, USA, Mexico, Brazil, New Zealand, and Australia. Other essays in the volume focus on thematic issues or topics pertaining to classical architecture, such as ornament, spolia, humanism, nature, moderation, decorum, heresy, and taste.

Nicholas Temple is an architect, Professor of Architecture and Director of the Centre for Urban Design, Architecture and Sustainability (CUDAS) at the University of Huddersfield. A graduate of Cambridge University, he previously served as head of the School of Architecture at the University of Lincoln and was an assistant professor of architecture at the University of Pennsylvania. Temple was a Rome Scholar in Architecture at the British School at Rome, a Paul Mellon Rome Fellow and Bogliasco Fellow and has collaborated on research projects on the history and theory of architecture and urbanism in Europe and China. His most recent research is a British Academy funded project with Professor Cecilia Panti on Lorenzo Ghiberti’s 3rd Commentary. He was shortlisted for the International CICA Bruno Zevi Book Award in 2014 for his book Renovatio Urbis: Architecture, Urbanism and Ceremony in the Rome of Julius II (Routledge, 2011) and is chief editor of the Routledge Research in Architectural History series and co-editor of the Journal of Architecture.

Andrzej Piotrowski, an architect educated in Poland and Professor of Architecture at the University of Minnesota, USA, combines in his scholarship theory and history of architecture. His Jeffrey Cook Award-winning research focuses on the epistemology of design. Covering global issues of architecture, religion, politics, and culture, his findings have been presented in many architectural and cross-disciplinary conferences. Author of Architecture of Thought (University of Minnesota Press, 2011) and co-editor with J. Williams Robinson of The Discipline of Architecture (University of Minnesota Press, 2001), he currently serves as an associate editor of the Traditional Dwellings and Settlements Review.

Juan Manuel Heredia is Associate Professor of Architecture at Portland State University, having completed a PhD and Master of Architecture at the University of Pennsylvania. He also holds a Diploma of Philosophy from Universidad Iberoamericana/Mexico City. Heredia studied and practised architecture in Mexico before moving to the United States in 1999 to pursue graduate studies. His research focuses on architectural theory and history, especially of the 20th century. His work has been published in Arquine and Bitacora (Mexico), On-Site Review (Canada) and Arkitekten (Denmark). In 2009 he co-organised the Second International Architecture and Phenomenology Conference held in Kyoto, Japan. His current writing focuses on 20th-century architecture in Mexico and Latin America.

C O N T E N T S

1. Introduction: A ‘World’ Reception of Classical Architecture Nicholas Temple, Andrzej Piotrowski and Juan Manuel Heredia

Part I: Transmission and Re-Conceptualisation of Classical Architecture
2  The Fates of Fornix Juan Manuel Heredia
3  Architects, Architecture, and the City: Some Themes on the Continuity of Classical Ideas Relating to the Latin Middle Ages Christian Frost
4  Rethinking Ornament in Classical Architecture: Spolia and Architecture as institutio Clare E. L. Guest
5  The Persistence of Natura Naturans from Classical Architecture John Hendrix
6  On Moderation: The Ancient Virtue and its Reception in Architectural Theory Esra Sahin Burat
7  Classical Columns, Mannerism, and the Other Antiquity Andrzej Piotrowski
8  Neoclassical Taste and Antiquarian Scholarship: The Royal Academy of the Three Noble Arts of San Carlos in Mexico, Alexander von Humboldt and Pedro José Márquez Oscar Humberto Flores
9  Eighteenth- and Nineteenth-Century Classicism in England: John Soane’s Language and Imagination Yue Zhuang

Part II: Classical Influences through Colonialism, Political Ideology, and Religious Conversion
10  Honour and the Classical Tradition in Architecture: The Matter of Slavery Charles Burroughs
11  Dismemberment of the Orders and their Reassembly across Portuguese Overseas Settlements Pedro Guedes
12  The Reception and Involution of Classical Architecture in Jesuit Missions in China, 1583–1759 Xiao Jing
13  The Gods That Came from the Sea: The Classical Tradition in New Spain Santiago de Orduña
14  Indo-Portuguese Architecture in Kerala during the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries Helder Carita
15  Neo-classical Architecture in the Straits Settlements: Singapore’s Civic Square, 1819–1936 Raymond Quek
16  Herbert Baker, New Delhi, and the Reception of the Classical Tradition Soumyen Bandyopadhyay and Sagar Chauhan

Part III: Historiographical Surveys of Geographical Regions
17  Scotland’s Enduring Eclectic Classicism Ian Campbell
18  From Fischer von Erlach to Adolf Loos: The Classical in Austria Ross Jenner
19  Avatars of the Classical Tradition in Romanian Architecture Ana Maria Zahariade and Horia Moldovan
20  China (Sixteenth to Eighteenth Centuries): Renaissance Humanism and Chinese Architecture Hui Zou
21  Revising the Classical in Australian Architecture: Colonial New South Wales and Victoria Peter Kohane and Mark Stiles
22  ‘Pretty True Reflection of Our Civilisation’: Classical Architecture in Nineteenth-Century New Zealand Robin Skinner
23  Nordic Visions of a Classical World, 1901–1966 Harry Charrington

Part IV: Visual and Textual Discourses
24  (Re)Invoking Humanism in Modernity: Architecture and Spectacle in Fascist Italy Nicholas Temple and Eleni Tracada
25  Unclassical Forms of Late Roman Architecture and the Roman Baroque: Francesco Borromini and the New Classical Tradition Giuseppe Bonaccorso
26  Power, Patronage and Politics: Giovanni Niccolò Servandoni and the Reception of Neoclassicism in France Louise Pelletier
27  The Reception of European Renaissance Urban Theory in New Spain Juan Luis Burke
28  Thomas Jefferson: The American Landscape and the Architecture Carol William Westfall
29  The Revival of Classical Architecture in Athens, 1830–1860: Educational Institutions in Athens by Christian Hansen, Lysandros Kaftantzoglou and Stamatios Kleanthis Nikolaos Karydis
30  Modernism and Classicism in Brazil: Foundational Myths and Other Stories Daniela Sandler
31  Greek Temple Design and the Kathedrale des erotishen Elends Matthew Mindrup
32  The Underbelly of the Architect: Reproducing Classical Idioms of Power and Culture in Rome Renée Tobe and Tracey Eve Winton

Selected Bibliography
Index

Exhibition | Spain: Highlights from The Bowes Museum

Posted in exhibitions by Editor on August 21, 2019

This fall at the Meadows Museum (a variation of the exhibition on view at The Wallace two years ago). . .

El Greco, Goya, and a Taste for Spain: Highlights from The Bowes Museum
Meadows Museum, SMU, Dallas, 15 September 2019 — 12 January 2020

Francisco José de Goya y Lucientes, Interior of a Prison, 1793–94, oil on tin plate, (County Durham: The Bowes Museum, B.M.29).

The Bowes Museum in County Durham, UK, is home to the largest collection of Spanish painting in the British Isles. The collection represents the life-work of John and Joséphine Bowes, who, through key connections with dealers in Paris, amassed a collection noted for its depth and breadth, quality and quantity during the second half of the nineteenth century. Their museum opened to the public in 1892, and continues to serve the people of northern England with an engaging series of exhibitions and public programs. This focused exhibition—it consists of just under a dozen works—showcases the finest of the Bowes’s collection of Spanish painting. The exhibition will feature artists such as Juan de Borgoña (c. 1470–1536), El Greco (1541–1614), and Francisco de Goya (1746–1828), and paintings on panel and canvas ranging from the early sixteenth to late eighteenth centuries. This was a crucial period in the history and development of Spanish art as artists transitioned from producing large, gold-encrusted retable panels of saints to intimate portraits and scenes taken from life, as is the case with Goya’s harrowing Interior of a Prison (1793–94). It is an exhibition of three centuries of saints and sinners, secular and sacred likenesses meant to inspire devotion, admiration, and at times discomfort. El Greco, Goya, and a Taste for Spain: Highlights from The Bowes Museum will explore these and other issues within the context of the history of art while also taking a closer look at John and Joséphine Bowes’s role in the history of the collection and display of Spanish art outside of Spain.

Exhibition | Goya’s Visions in Ink

Posted in exhibitions by Editor on August 21, 2019

Now on view at the Meadows Museum, at Southern Methodist University:

Goya’s Visions in Ink: The Centerpiece of the Meadows Drawings Collection
Meadows Museum, SMU, Dallas, 30 April — 3 November 2019

Francisco José de Goya y Lucientes, Visions, ca. 1819-23; brush and black and gray ink with scraping on paper, 24 × 15 cm (Dallas: Meadows Museum, SMU; museum purchase with funds from The Meadows Foundation, with additional support from Cyrena Nolan, MM.2019.01).

This exhibition highlights the Meadows’s recent acquisition of Francisco de Goya’s exceptional ink drawing Visions (c. 1819–23) from his “Witches and Old Women” album. This important acquisition is the first drawing by Goya to enter the museum’s collection, which already includes key paintings and prints by the Spanish master. The Meadows Museum now joins only a handful of institutions worldwide that can boast such significant holdings of the artist’s work across media.

The very personal, technically accomplished drawing will be featured alongside a selection of Goya’s prints containing related subject matter from the Disparates series, completed ca. 1815–23, nearly simultaneously to the drawing itself. Didactic materials will offer insight into the singular technical qualities of the drawing’s creation and its fascinating provenance. Additional examples from the museum’s collection of works on paper will serve to highlight the uniquely intimate nature of drawings, as well as offer supporting insight into the multifaceted ways in which artists have employed the medium. The exhibition will demonstrate Goya’s achievements as a draftsman and situate Visions as a noteworthy central point of the museum’s collection of drawings.

Meadows Museum Announces Four New Acquisitions

Posted in museums by Editor on August 21, 2019

Press release (14 August 2019) from SMU’s Meadows Museum:

The Meadows Museum, SMU, announced that it has acquired four works that reflect the richness and depth of Spanish art across period, style, and mode of production. Among the new acquisitions is Our Lady of Solitude (1769) by Manuel Ramírez de Arellano, which represents both a critical expansion of scholarly knowledge on the artist’s creative output and an important enhancement of the Meadow’s holdings of terracotta sculpture, building on other acquisitions in that medium over the last several years. Further, following the Meadows’s 2018 exhibition Dalí: Poetics of the Small, 1929–1936, which focused on Salvador Dalí’s small-scale paintings, the museum has been given Venus de Milo with Drawers (1936, cast 1971), the first sculptural work by Dalí to enter the museum’s collections. Also among the new acquisitions are a drawing by renowned artist Ignacio Zuloaga, Portrait of Margaret Kahn (1923), which provides new insights into the artist’s process and highlights his success as a portraitist among American audiences, as well as the painting Orchard in Seville (c. 1880), by Emilio Sánchez Perrier, a rare example of the artist’s work at a large scale, produced early in his career.

Together, the new acquisitions underscore the Meadows’s commitment to collecting works that encapsulate significant developments in the trajectory of Spanish art and to establishing essential touchstones within its collection that spur new research, exhibitions, and publications. Of the new acquisitions, Mark A. Roglán, the Linda P. and William A. Custard Director of the Meadows Museum, said, “As we continue to acquire works, we are focused on furthering the established dialogues between and among objects in our collection, while also creating new connections that enhance both scholarly understanding of Spanish art and public enjoyment of it. We are particularly excited to bring these four works into the museum’s holdings because they represent important developments within each artist’s career as well as essential enhancements to our collection. We look forward to displaying these works in the coming months, and to furthering knowledge about each of these artist’s practices.”

Manuel Ramírez de Arellano (1721/22–1789)
Our Lady of Solitude, 1769
Polychromed terracotta

Manuel Ramírez de Arellano, Our Lady of Solitude, 1769, polychromed terracotta, 26 cm high (Dallas: Meadows Museum, SMU; museum purchase with funds from Barbara Wright McKenzie ’74 and Mike McKenzie, MM.2019.04).

Manuel Ramírez de Arellano was born into a prominent artistic family in Zaragoza. Despite the documentation around his family’s workshops and his father’s involvement in the establishment of one of Spain’s earliest art academies, the Academia del Dibujo (Academy of Drawing), very little is known about Ramírez’s life and the full arc of his artistic career. Ramírez is most widely recognized for three major commissions that he completed for the Cartuja de Aula Dei, a Carthusian monastery just outside of Zaragoza. These included the creation of an elaborate decorative door frame (c. 1750), the high altarpiece representing the Assumption of the Virgin (c. 1762), and a series of life-sized statues that line the church’s nave (c. 1772). The last of the commissions represents an historically significant collaboration with Francisco de Goya y Lucientes, who was concurrently commissioned to paint frescos for the nave.

Our Lady of Solitude is exceptionally rare for what it teaches us about the scope and depth of Ramírez’s practice and in the information it yields regarding the work’s making. Specifically, while there is some archival evidence that Ramírez produced small-scale terracotta sculptures for personal devotion, Our Lady of Solitude proves this aspect of his artistic output. Furthermore, the detailed inscription on the statue’s bottom, which reads in English translation, “On January 8th, 1769, in Madrid. Made by Manuel Ramírez,” firmly attributes the work to Ramírez’s hand. This is particularly remarkable as most sculptures of the time were produced by workshops, making individual attributions difficult to identify. It also locates Ramírez in Madrid during a decade in which details about his life were previously unknown.

Despite the Meadows’s extensive sculpture collection, Our Lady of Solitude, which captures the Virgin Mary in a quiet moment of mourning, is the first sculpture of Marian devotion to enter the museum’s collection, filling an important gap within its holdings. Further, the acquisition, which has been made by the Meadows through purchase with funds from Barbara Wright McKenzie and Mike McKenzie, builds on other recent important acquisitions of polychromed terracotta works, enhancing the diversity of objects of this medium in the museum’s collection.

Salvador Dalí (1904–1989)
Venus de Milo with Drawers, 1936, cast 1971, Edition 37/150
White paint on bronze

Salvador Dalí first produced a version of the Musée du Louvre’s well-known 2nd-century BCE Venus de Milo marble in 1936, adding his own Surrealist twist to the iconic work by incorporating six drawers at the statue’s forehead, breasts, stomach, abdomen, and left knee. The motif of a female figure comprised of drawers was one of particular fascination and exploration for Dalí, as it appears in the related painting The Anthropomorphic Cabinet and the drawing City of Drawers—both also produced in 1936. The imagery also reappeared decades later in prints that Dalí created in the 1960s. While never expressed directly by Dalí himself, it has been suggested that the incorporation of drawers within the female torso represented a linguistic examination or play on the English phrase “chest of drawers.”

Dalí’s 1936 plaster version of the Venus de Milo went largely unnoticed until the 1960s, at which point it began to be reproduced in myriad editions that included wide variations of the sculpture’s patina and height. The version acquired by the Meadows Museum—a bronze painted white to mimic the original marble inspiration—closely matches Dalí’s first plaster in all but its small scale. The acquisition of Venus de Milo with Drawers follows the Meadows’s 2018 exhibition Dalí: Poetics of the Small, 1929–1936, which highlighted small-scale painting as another aspect of the artist’s incredible artistic range and captured the ongoing popularity of the artist’s work. The acquisition also represents the first sculptural object by Dalí to enter the Meadows’s collection, providing new dimension to the museum’s holdings of paintings and prints by the artist. Venus de Milo with Drawers enters the Meadows’s collection as a gift to the museum by collector Daniel Malingue, who collaborated with the museum on its recent Dalí exhibition.

Ignacio Zuloaga (1870–1945)
Portrait of Margaret Kahn, 1923
Charcoal and graphite on paper

Ignacio Zuloaga is recognized as one of the most celebrated Spanish painters of the early 20th century. Born to a family of artisans in the Basque city of Eibar, Zuloaga first trained as a metalworker. After viewing the works of Spanish masters such as El Greco, Velázquez, and Goya at the Museo Nacional del Prado in 1887, however, he began his pursuit of painting, studying and working in Rome, Paris, and throughout Spain. By 1900, he was exhibiting his paintings widely, and receiving widespread acclaim for his rich use of color and dramatic landscapes and atmospheres. Although Zuloaga is well known for his depictions of Spanish culture and identity, he gained the widest popularity as a portraitist.

While most of Zuloaga’s portrait commissions resulted in paintings, his drawings reveal many of the same formal qualities. With the acquisition of Portrait of Margaret Kahn, which was given to the Meadows Museum by Zuloaga’s grandson Rafael de Zuloaga y Suárez, the museum is adding an important representation of Zuloaga’s artistic process and technique. Portrait of Margaret Kahn also marks the first drawing by the artist to enter the Meadows’s collection, joining three important paintings within the museum’s holdings: The Bullfighter ‘El Segovianito’ (1912); View of Alquézar (c. 1915–20); and Portrait of the Duchess of Arión, Marchioness of Bay (1918).

Embraced in his home country and across Europe, Zuloaga also became a favorite of American audiences who expressed a particular keenness for having their likenesses painted by him. Portrait of Margaret Kahn captures the relationship Zuloaga developed with America’s elite; the drawing depicts an heir to a New York financial fortune. While it is not known how Kahn came into contact with Zuloaga, it is likely she became aware of his work during his 1916 New York exhibition at the Duveen Gallery, which launched his prominence among American audiences.

Emilio Sánchez Perrier (1855–1907)
Orchard in Seville, c. 1880
Oil on panel

Emilio Sánchez Perrier, Orchard in Seville, ca. 1880, oil on panel, 47 × 71 cm (Dallas: Meadows Museum, SMU; museum purchase with funds from Linda P. and William A. Custard, Gwen and Richard Irwin, and friends of the Meadows Museum, MM.2019.05; photo by Kevin Todora).

Emilio Sánchez Perrier was a popular and widely collected landscape painter—both in Spain and the United States—during and after his lifetime. A member of a group of Sevillian painters sometimes called the school of Alcalá de Guadaíra, Sánchez Perrier exemplifies through his work the evolution of landscape painting during the late 19th century, as the interests of both artists and collectors shifted from the idealized perspectives of the Romantic tradition to a realist, plein air approach that emphasized the direct observation of nature.

The Meadows’s acquisition of Sánchez Perrier’s Orchard in Seville recognizes the artist’s historical prominence, as well as the value of this work within the context of the museum’s existing collection. The Meadows currently holds Sánchez Perrier’s painting River Landscape (Villennes-sur-Seine) (c. 1895)—a work completed significantly later in the artist’s life. The new acquisition dates to early in his career and is larger than River Landscape (Villennes-sur-Seine). Orchard in Seville also complements a number of other works in the collection, including the painting Ladies and Gentlemen Visiting a Patio of the Alcázar of Seville (1857), by Joaquín Domínguez Bécquer, one of Sánchez Perrier’s early teachers in Seville, and the museum’s recent acquisition, Beach at Portici (1874), by Sánchez Perrier’s famous contemporary Mariano Fortuny y Marsal.

Orchard in Seville depicts a public garden adjacent to the Real Alcázar de Sevilla that was known as the Huerta del Retiro, and the work is part of a group of paintings of Seville and its many historical buildings and gardens. However, the work is distinguished by two characteristics. First is the artist’s precise technique, which conveys the play of light on the trees and tall grass of the garden, as well as the walls of the buildings that enclose it. The second is its size: significantly larger than the artist’s other known works, it was painted at a time when Sánchez Perrier’s reputation was growing, and he was increasingly seeking opportunities to show outside of Seville and, especially, in Paris. The work enters the collection through the museum’s purchase, with funds from Linda P. and William A. Custard, Gwen and Richard Irwin, and friends of the Meadows Museum.

New Book | Siting China in Germany

Posted in books by Editor on August 20, 2019

From Penn State UP (available in October). . .

Christiane Hertel, Siting China in Germany: Eighteenth-Century Chinoiserie and Its Modern Legacy (University Park: The Pennsylvania State University Press, 2019), 304 pages, ISBN: 978-0271082370, $125.

Chinoiserie—the use of motifs, materials, and techniques considered ‘Chinese’ in ceramics, furniture, interior design, and landscape architecture—has often been associated with courtly decadence and shallow escapism. In Siting China in Germany, Christiane Hertel challenges conventional assumptions about this art form by developing a fresh, complex perspective on collections, gardens, and literature in the long eighteenth century.

From the extraordinary porcelain palaces at Dresden and Rastatt and the gardens of Wilhelmsthal and Wilhelmshöhe in Kassel to the literary and artistic translation practices in Dresden and Thomas Mann’s historical novel Lotte in Weimar, Hertel interprets the extensive history of chinoiserie within but also beyond court culture. In particular, her study focuses on how manifestations of chinoiserie in Germany oscillated between the imagination, judgment, and critique of cultural and historical difference as well as identity. Hertel’s erudite analysis of the cultural significance of German chinoiserie will interest art historians and scholars of Orientalism, German Sinophilia, and German Sinophobia.

Christiane Hertel is Professor Emerita of History of Art at Bryn Mawr College. She is the author of several books, including Pygmalion in Bavaria: The Sculptor Ignaz Günther and Eighteenth-Century Aesthetic Art Theory, also published by Penn State University Press.

Exhibition | Wild and Majestic: Romantic Visions of Scotland

Posted in books, catalogues, exhibitions by Editor on August 18, 2019

John Knox, Landscape with Tourists at Loch Katrine, 1815, oil on canvas
(Edinburgh: National Galleries of Scotland)

◊  ◊  ◊  ◊  ◊

From the press release (25 June 2019) for the exhibition:

Wild and Majestic: Romantic Visions of Scotland
National Museum of Scotland, Edinburgh, 26 June — 10 November 2019

Curated by Patrick Watt

A major exhibition at the National Museum of Scotland this summer tells the fascinating story of how tartan, bagpipes, and rugged, wild landscapes became established as enduring, internationally recognised symbols of Scottish identity and how Scotland became established in the popular imagination as a land of wilderness, heroism, and history. Wild and Majestic: Romantic Visions of Scotland spans the period from the final defeat of the Jacobites at the Battle of Culloden in 1746 to the death of Queen Victoria in 1901. The exhibition explores the efforts made to preserve and revive Highland traditions in the wake of post-Jacobite persecution, depopulation, and rapid socio-economic change. It shows how Scotland’s relationship with the European Romantic movement transformed external perceptions of the Highlands and was central to the birth of tourism in Scotland. These developments would in turn influence the relationship between the Hanoverian royal family and Scotland, particularly George IV and, later, Queen Victoria.

Pompeo Battoni, Portrait of Colonel William Gordon of Fyvie, 1766 (National Trust for Scotland, Fyvie Castle).

Over 300 objects will be on display, drawn from the collections of National Museums Scotland and 38 lenders across the UK. The objects tell a story with a stellar cast, including Queen Victoria and Prince Albert; King George IV; Sir Walter Scott; Robert Burns; J.M.W. Turner; Henry Raeburn; Felix Mendelssohn; William and Dorothy Wordsworth; Ludwig Van Beethoven; and Lord Byron, whose 1807 poem Lachin y Gair (Lochnagar) is quoted in the exhibition’s title. Prominent Highlanders featured include the Ossian author-translator James Macpherson, the soldier-historian David Stewart of Garth, the clan chief Mac Mhic Alasdair (Alasdair Macdonnel of Glengarry), and the folklorists Alasdair Gilleasbaig MacGilleMhìcheil (Alexander Carmichael) and Iain Òg Ìle (John Campbell of Islay).

Dr Patrick Watt, exhibition curator, said: “This is a contested, complex history, and also a fascinating one. There are competing claims, still, over the extent to which those symbols of Scotland we see today are Romantic inventions or authentic expressions of an ancient cultural identity. Using material evidence, we will examine the origins and development of the dress, music, and art which made up the Highland image. We will show how cultural traditions were preserved, idealised, and reshaped to suit contemporary tastes against a background of political agendas, and economic and social change.”

Through rich displays reflecting the colour and flamboyance of the Highland image, visitors will encounter key developments such as the Ossian controversy, the overturning of the ban on Highland dress, the pageantry around King George IV’s visit to Edinburgh in 1822, the Highland tourism boom, and the creation of a Romantic idyll for Queen Victoria at Balmoral.

National Museums Scotland has partnered with Sabhal Mòr Ostaig College on Skye, part of the University of the Highlands and Islands (UHI), on the production of content for the major summer exhibition. Throughout the exhibition, the influence of Gaelic language and culture, and the impact of these developments on it will be shown through objects, text, and film. The primary exhibition text will be presented in both English and Gaelic.

The Romantic period undoubtedly coloured perceptions, both at the time and to this day to the extent that the popular images of Highland culture are sometimes dismissed as a 19th-century fabrication. However, the exhibition will stress the deep historical roots underpinning the Romantic image. The heritage of clan tartans is introduced in portraiture in the extravagant dress of the Laird of Grant’s piper and champion painted by Richard Waitt in 1714. The bagpiping tradition is introduced by oldest known Scottish chanter, which belonged to Iain Dall Mackay, a piper and composer born on Skye in 1656.

Following the final defeat of the Jacobites in 1746 at the Battle of Culloden, there were reprisals across the Highlands. The power of the Clans was dismantled, male civilians were banned from wearing Highland dress, and Gaelic culture was disparaged. The ban on tartan did not apply to those men who enlisted in the newly raised Highland Regiments of the British Army. The heroic image of the tartan-clad Highland soldier went on to become an icon of the military power of the British Empire, and the ideal of the heroic Highland warrior would recur throughout the nineteenth century.

In the 1760s the literary culture of the Scottish Highlands and Islands was introduced to the world. Highland schoolmaster and poet, James Macpherson, claimed to have researched, collected and translated the fragments of ancient poetry of Ossian, a legendary 3rd-century Gaelic bard. Despite a raging controversy over its authenticity, MacPherson’s work was translated into multiple languages and admired by many influential European writers, artists, and composers. A first edition volume will be shown, as well as artwork inspired by Ossian, and the Red Book of Clanranald, one of the Gaelic manuscript sources Macpherson consulted. Robert Burns travelled the Highlands, looking for poetic inspiration. His publisher, George Thomson, commissioned major European composers to set Scottish songs to music, including a version of Burns’ Highland Harry scored in the original hand of Ludwig Van Beethoven.

From the late 18th century, visitors were drawn to Scotland in increasing numbers, attracted to locations depicted in romantic paintings, prints, and literature. Many artists, writers, and musicians visited, often on personal pilgrimages inspired by the lasting influence of Ossian, or the fame of Burns, Sir Walter Scott and others. Works by major figures, including Wordsworth, Turner and Mendelssohn—all of whom met with Scott during their travels—inspired more people to seek out the places evoked in music, art, and literature for themselves. Dorothy Wordsworth’s travel journal, Mendelssohn’s sketchbook and his original score of the Hebrides Overture, and a silver urn gifted from Byron to Scott after the two literary giants met in 1815 all feature in the exhibition.

Edwin Landseer, The Monarch of the Glen, ca. 1851 (Edinburgh: National Galleries of Scotland).

Seeing change all around them, influential Highlanders made efforts to preserve elements of traditional Gaelic culture, even as they promoted a new rural economy whose human impact we now know as the Highland Clearances. The exhibition will look at the early Highland societies, and their material legacies, including the standardisation of the Great Highland Bagpipe which we know today, and the codification of clan tartans, through the first gathered samples dating to 1815. The Highland Society of London championed the image of the Highland soldier, commemorating military exploits through the commissioning of medals and trophies, and successfully campaigned for the repeal of the legal ban on Highland dress in 1782. The Repeal of the Act of Proscription was issued in both English and Gaelic, and the Gaelic version will be shown.

With the Jacobite cause extinguished as a political and military threat, the Hanoverian Royalty began to embrace and champion their own Stuart lineage, and gestures were made towards healing the divisions of the previous century.  This was shown most vividly in the Highland pageantry associated with the events stage-managed by Sir Walter Scott during King George IV’s visit to Edinburgh in 1822. A parade of ceremonial costume will give a flavour of this spectacular, if controversial, event along with contemporary accounts and the tartans and weaponry which Sir Walter Scott encouraged people to wear for the occasion.

It was the young Queen Victoria who took this royal fascination to new heights. Following a series of royal visits to the Highlands, the Queen and Prince Albert acquired the Balmoral estate.  Later, with the death of Prince Albert, the estate became a Highland retreat from the realities of court and government for Queen Victoria. Balmoral helped to ensure that the ideal of the Scottish Highlands which emerged from the culture and politics of the late 18th century would endure, even as fashions and attitudes to history changed. Among the objects on display will be a tartan dress worn by a young Victoria, a brooch she gifted to famed piper John Ban Mackenzie and a mourning pin she had made to commemorate her Highland servant, friend, and confidant John Brown.

The exhibition is sponsored by Baillie Gifford Investment Managers. It will be supported by a publication and programme of public events. Sarah Pittman, Sponsorship Manager at Baillie Gifford said: “We are delighted to continue our successful association with National Museums Scotland by supporting Wild and Majestic: Romantic Visions of Scotland. The exhibition promises a unique and beautiful array of objects which together will tell a fascinating story of how the Romantic movement drew on the real traditions and history of Highland culture to form an enduring international image of Scotland.”

Wild and Majestic: Romantic Visions of Scotland is part of Edinburgh Art Festival, taking place between 25 July and 25 August 2019. edinburghartfestival.com @EdArtFest #EdArtFest.

Patrick Watt and Rosie Waine, Wild and Majestic: Romantic Visions of Scotland (Edinburgh: National Museum of Scotland, 2019), 80 pages, ISBN: 978-1910682241, £10.

New Book | Robert Adam and His Brothers

Posted in books by Editor on August 17, 2019

Distributed in partnership with Liverpool UP, which offers this special offer for Enfilade readers: at checkout, enter the code ROBERTADAM20 for a 20% discount.

Colin Thom, ed., Robert Adam and His Brothers: New Light on Britain’s Leading Architectural Family (Swindon: Historic England, 2019), 280 pages, ISBN: 978-1848023598, £65.

Robert Adam is perhaps the best known of all British architects, the only one whose name denotes both a style and an era. The new decorative language he introduced at Kedleston and Syon around 1760 put him at the forefront of dynamic changes taking place in 18th-century British architecture. His later claim that his practice with his brother James had effected ‘a kind of revolution’ in design was no idle boast. Their style dominated the later Georgian period and their influence was widespread, not only in Western Europe but in Russia and North America. But for such a well-known figure, much of Robert Adam’s art still remains poorly understood.

This new study, based on papers given at a Georgian Group symposium in 2015, looks afresh at many aspects of the Adam brothers’ oeuvre, such as interior planning, their use of colour, the influence of classical sources, their involvement in the art market, town planning and building speculation, and Robert Adam’s late picturesque drawings and castle designs – all within the context of the Adam family background and their personal and working relationships. The Scottish architecture of Robert and James’s older brother, John, is also assessed. There are essays by established Adam experts as well as contributions from a younger generation of historians and postdoctoral scholars, one of the book’s aims being to stimulate further research on the Adams’ contribution to British architecture, art and design.

Colin Thom is a Senior Research Associate with the Survey of London at UCL’s Bartlett School of Architecture and an expert on the work of the Adam brothers.

C O N T E N T S

Colin Thom, Introduction: ‘Some Promising Young Men’: Robert Adam and His Brothers
1  Alistair Rowan, Johnnie, the Eldest Adam Brother
2  Jonathan Yarker, ‘Antique Mad’: The Adams as Dealers and Their Stock of Antiquities
3  Jerzy J. Kierkuc-Bielinski, Context and Attribution: Antonio Zucchi’s Portrait of James Adam (1763)
4  Adriano Aymonino, ‘The True Style of Antique Decoration’: Agostino Brunias and the Birth of the Adam Style at Kedleston Hall and Syon House
5  Miranda Hausberg, Robert Adam’s Scenographic Interiors
6  Conor Lucey, Design by Correspondence: Robert Adam and Headfort House
7  Peter N. Lindfield, A ‘Classical Goth’: Robert Adam’s Engagement with Medieval Architecture
8  David King, The Ingenious Mr Adam
9  Colin Thom, The Adam Brothers and Portland Place: A Reassessment
10  Marrikka Trotter, Temporal Sublime: Robert Adam’s Castle Style and Geology in the Scottish Enlightenment
11  Eileen Harris, ‘The Parent Style or the Original Sin’: The Adam Revival in America

 

Conference | Goldsmiths and Bankers as Collectors

Posted in conferences (to attend) by Editor on August 13, 2019

From the conference flyer and registration page at Eventbrite:

Goldsmiths and Bankers as Collectors
Goldsmiths’ Hall, London, 28 October 2019

Jan Steen, The Wrath of Ahasuerus, ca. 1668–1670 (University of Birmingham: The Barber Institute of Fine Arts).

This conference will bring together academics and curators to seek patterns of patronage amongst goldsmiths and bankers, an influential and diverse social grouping that has contributed significantly to both our architectural and artistic heritage. It will identify the range of social, economic, and political motivations for their participation in high material culture and explore case studies of particular individuals, objects, and places to illustrate the sheer variety of manifestations of the goldsmith and banker as collector and patron.

Two of the key National Trust examples—Osterley and Stourhead—will set the scene in papers by James Rothwell and Dr John Chu. Dr Tarnya Cooper, Professor Malcolm Airs, and Anthony Hotson will then examine aspects of art and architectural patronage in the 16th and 17th centuries. The role of print collections amongst 18th-century goldsmiths in the southern Netherlands will be analysed by Dr Wim Nys; and there will be papers on the collections, collecting habits, and artistic pursuits of Stephen Alers Hankey, Lionel de Rothschild, and James Walker Oxley by Robert Wenley, Diana Davis, and James Lomax. Dr Dora Thornton will focus on the gift to the Goldsmiths’ Company in 1919 by James Pierpont Morgan of an Elizabethan double bell salt in silver, and Dr Irene Galandra Cooper will present the collecting of the 20th- and early 21st-century banker, Bruno Schroder, through his Goldsmiths’ Court cup by Kevin Coates. The keynote address by Dr Perry Gauci, of Lincoln College, Oxford, will explore the interrelation of the commercial and cultural activities of London private bankers before bringing together strands explored throughout the day and opportunities for further work.

This conference—organised by the National Trust, with the support of Waddesdon Manor and the Goldsmiths’ Company—will be held in the magnificent surroundings of Goldsmiths’ Hall in the City of London on Monday, 28 October 2019. Registration: £60 including lunch, or £40 without lunch (but with tea and coffee). Information and enquiries (including dietary requests) should be sent to richard.ashbourne@nationaltrust.org.uk.