Enfilade

Exhibition | Sublime Ideas: Drawings by Giovanni Battista Piranesi

Posted in exhibitions by Editor on February 24, 2020

From The Morgan:

Sublime Ideas: Drawings by Giovanni Battista Piranesi
The Morgan Library & Museum, New York, 29 May — 13 September 2020

Giovanni Battista Piranesi, Architectural Fantasy, 18th century (New York: The Morgan Library & Museum, Gift of Mr. Janos Scholz, 1974.27).

In a letter written near the end of his life, Giovanni Battista Piranesi (1720–1778) explained to his sister that he had lived away from his native Venice because he could find no patrons there willing to support “the sublimity of my ideas.” He resided instead in Rome, where he became internationally famous working as a printmaker, designer, architect, archaeologist, theorist, dealer, and polemicist. While Piranesi’s lasting fame is based above all on his etchings, he was also an intense, accomplished, and versatile draftsman, and much of his work was first developed in vigorous drawings. The Morgan holds what is arguably the largest and most important collection of these works, including early architectural caprices, studies for prints, measured design drawings, sketches for a range of decorative objects, a variety of figural drawings, and views of Rome and Pompeii. These works form the core of the exhibition. Supplemented with seldom-exhibited loans from a number of private collections, Sublime Ideas will offer a broad survey of Piranesi’s work as a draftsman, celebrating the 300th anniversary of the artist’s birth.

Exhibition | Turner: Quest for the Sublime

Posted in exhibitions by Editor on February 23, 2020

J.M.W. Turner, Small Boats beside a Man-o’-War, 1796–97, gouache and watercolor on paper, 14 × 24 inches
(Tate: Turner Bequest 1856)

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Press release for the exhibition now on view at the Frist Art Museum:

J.M.W. Turner: Quest for the Sublime
Frist Art Museum, Nashville, 20 February — 31 May 2020

The Frist Art Museum presents J.M.W. Turner: Quest for the Sublime, an exhibition of extraordinary oil paintings, luminous watercolors, and evocative sketches by Joseph Mallord William Turner (1775–1851), a central figure in the Romantic movement widely recognized as Britain’s greatest painter and among the most highly regarded landscape painters in Western art. Selected from Tate’s Turner Bequest and organized in cooperation with Tate, the exhibition made its sole U.S. appearance in the Frist’s Ingram Gallery from February 20 through May 31, 2020.

Long admired for his ingenuity, originality, and passion, Turner strove to convey human moods and the feeling of awe aroused by nature’s immensity and power—its palpable atmospheres, pulsating energy, the drama of storms and disasters, and the transcendent effect of pure light. With approximately 75 works, the exhibition conveys highlights in the British painter’s career from the 1790s to the late 1840s, from dizzying mountain scenes and stormy seascapes to epic history paintings and mysterious views of Venice.

The Romantic movement of the late 18th- through mid-19th centuries arose in response to the Enlightenment emphasis on reason over emotion. “For Turner, psychological expression and the liberation of the imagination were of paramount importance,” says David Blayney Brown, senior curator, 19th-century British art, Tate Britain. “He achieved these goals in images of the landscape that evoked human moods by portraying extreme contrasts of intense light and gloomy clouds, dramatic topographies, and energetic brushstrokes.”

Turner portrays climatic events not only as compelling forces by themselves, but also as settings and metaphor for historical and modern dramas. “Mountains and sea show the world in motion: the glacial creep of geological change in the Alps, the sudden fall of a rock propelled by an avalanche, the changing appearance of Mont Rigi according to time and weather, the swell and heave of the sea,” says Brown. Societal and technological changes are captured as well, with images of steamships and other suggestions of industry signaling the forthcoming machine age. The exhibition also includes elemental images of sea and sky, painted late in Turner’s life, which appear nearly abstract.

The concept of the Sublime was central to Romanticism. “As industrialization progressed, people gradually began to develop a longing for the awe-inspiring power and beauty of untouched nature and natural forces. Turner was able to cater to this interest in his landscape paintings,” says Brown.

Organized thematically, the exhibition begins by examining Turner’s early aptitude at landscape painting while attending the Royal Academy Schools. Works in the section show his masterly adaptation of early influences and the first instances of what would become a lifelong habit of summer touring across Europe to make sketches and studies, which he would later make into studio paintings.

The next sections include Turner’s first impressions of the mountains, glaciers, and lakes of the Swiss Alps. “Turner’s early scenes of Switzerland and Italy are often somber or stormy in mood and coloring, reflecting a region that was as unstable politically as it was in its geology and climate,” says Brown. “In later works, he communicates a sense of rapture and harmony that may be related to the return of peace to Europe after the Napoleonic Wars.”

Other sections provide insight into Turner’s process and working methods by exploring sketchbook studies, works in progress, and watercolors at various stages of completion. The exhibition concludes with a section devoted to Turner’s fascination with the sea. “As time passes, there is a progression from a more substantial, three-dimensional style to one that is more impressionistic and less solid,” says Brown. “In these often-unfinished paintings, Turner stripped away subject and narrative to capture the pure energy of air, light, and water.”

Lecture | Steven Parissien, On George IV and the Horse

Posted in lectures (to attend) by Editor on February 23, 2020

George Stubbs, George IV, when Prince of Wales, detail, 1791, oil on canvas, 103 × 128 cm
(Royal Collection Trust, RCIN 400142)

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In connection with the exhibition George IV: Art & Spectacle now on view at Buckingham Palace:

Steven Parissien, George IV and the Horse
The Queen’s Gallery, Buckingham Palace, 26 February 2020

One of George IV’s greatest passions was horseracing. In this lunchtime lecture, Steven Parissien, Chief Executive of Palace House, Newmarket, examines the ways in which George utilised the image of the thoroughbred horse to define and bolster his royal image. 13:00–14:00

Summer Course | From Print to Paint

Posted in opportunities by Editor on February 23, 2020

From ArtHist.net:

From Print to Paint: Histories and Methods of Artistic Production
Utrecht, 13–17 July 2020

Applications due by 1 April 2020

How do artists master their art? Does painting in oil result in different working procedures and visual effects compared to other media? Which material and technical properties determine the creative possibilities of prints, sculptures, and the applied arts? What can art historians learn from re-making art, re-working historical recipes, or reproducing material objects? This course will immerse you in discussions related to art production and (re-)making, materials and materiality, and techniques and technology.

This course is highly interactive and has a firm hands-on component. It integrates methods typical for the humanities and historical disciplines with practical work in the studio or lab. At one moment you may find yourself decoding a recipe for writing ink in a historical manuscript; at another moment you might be introduced to the practicalities of the printing press. During one lab session you might be mixing pigment with different binding media to make oil and tempera paint, and on the next day you might be working with fire to cast a small metal object. You will benefit from Utrecht University’s Kunstlab and the research and expertise of the ERC-funded research project ARTECHNE. Upon completion, you will have deepened your knowledge in the artistic production of art with insights from recent developments in technical art history and heritage studies. This is the one-week version of the course. You can also choose to participate in the extended version (two weeks) that includes visits to museums throughout the Netherlands.

Lecturers
Jessie Wei-Hsuan Chen (main lecturer), Sven Dupré (guest speaker), Mireille Cornelis (guest speaker)

Target audience
Students who wish to take this course should have some academic training, as there will be substantial readings and intensive discussions. This course is also suitable for MA and PhD students who wish to apply historical remaking as a methodology and learn practical skills, as no previous experience in artistic production and making is required.

Course fee for the one-week version
€650 (included: course + course materials)
Housing fee: €200

Course fee for the extended version
€1150 (included: course + course materials + travel costs and entry fees to site visits)
Housing fee: €350

Housing through Utrecht Summer School. Summer school housing is optional. Students can also choose to arrange their own accommodation.

How to apply?
Please include a brief motivation to introduce who you are and why you want to take this course. This is to help the instructors learn the level of experience to better plan the lab sessions. Applications are reviewed on a rolling basis. As there is limited space in the lab, interested participants are advised to apply as soon as possible.

More information
Please contact the Course Director and ARTECHNE Project Associate Jessie Wei-Hsuan Chen at w.h.chen@uu.nl.

Film | Portrait of a Lady on Fire

Posted in films by Editor on February 22, 2020

From the official website for the film, which opened in France last fall:

Portrait de la jeune fille en feu, directed by Céline Sciamma and starring Noémie Merlant and Adèle Haenel, 120 minutes, 2019.

France, 1760. Marianne (Noémie Merlant) is commissioned to paint the wedding portrait of Héloïse (Adèle Haenel), a young woman who has just left the convent. Because Héloïse is a reluctant bride-to-be, Marianne arrives under the guise of companionship, observing Héloïse by day and secretly painting her by firelight at night. As the two women orbit one another, intimacy and attraction grow as they share Héloïse’s first moments of freedom. The portrait soon becomes a collaborative act of and testament to their love.

Winner of a coveted Cannes prize and one of the best reviewed films of the year, Portrait of a Lady on Fire solidifies Céline Sciamma as one of the most exciting filmmakers working in the world today. Noémie Merlant and Adèle Haenel turn the subtle act of looking into a dangerous, engrossing thrill, crafting the most breathtaking and elegant performances of the year. To watch Marianne and Héloïse fall in love is to see love itself invented onscreen.

Conference | Art and the Actuarial Imagination

Posted in conferences (to attend) by Editor on February 21, 2020

Aetna Insurance Co of Hartford Conn., detail, 1887, color lithograph, J. Ottman Lithographic Company, 67 × 49 cm
(Huntington Library, Jay T. Last Collection)

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Registration is available here:

Art and the Actuarial Imagination
The Huntington Library, Art Museum, and Botanical Gardens, San Marino, California, 10–11 April 2020

Insurance now plays pivotal roles in the construction, exhibition, and value of contemporary art and architecture. This two-day conference brings together interdisciplinary scholars to examine how insurance has constructed and inflected the civic, economic, and moral life of art and architecture from the early modern period to the present. Registration for this two-day conference is $25, with an optional buffet lunch each day for $20. Conference registration is $10 for current Huntington docents, and free for current Long-Term Fellows and students with a current student ID. Please bring your ID to event-day check-in. Students, please note school affiliation after your name when registering.

F R I D A Y ,  1 0  A P R I L  2 0 2 0

8:30  Registration and coffee

9:30  Welcome by Steve Hindle (The Huntington)

9:35  Remarks by Avigail Moss (University of Southern California) and Matthew Hunter (McGill University), Art and the Actuarial Imagination: Propositions

10:00  Session 1: The Artist as Actuary
Moderator: James Glisson (Santa Barbara Museum of Art)
• Sophie Cras (Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne), Art, Insurance and Post-Statistics Politics
• Melanie Gilligan (Royal Institute of Art, Stockholm), Films About Social Systems: Depicting Contingency

12:00  Lunch

1:00  Session 2: Incorporating Liability
Moderator: Matthew Hunter (McGill University)
• Nina Dubin (University of Illinois at Chicago), Eros, Inc.: Cupid, Corporate Form, and the Crash of 1720
• Avigail Moss (University of Southern California), Ars Longa, Vita Brevis: The Fine Art & General Insurance Company, Ltd.

3:00  Break

3:15  Session 3: The Hedge: Landscape and Power
Moderator: Avigail Moss (University of Southern California)
• Matthew Hunter (McGill University), The Sun is God: Turner, Angerstein and Insurance
• Richard Taws (University College London), The Loss Adjuster: Charles Méryons Speculations

S A T U R D A Y ,  1 1  A P R I L  2 0 2 0

9:00  Registration and coffee

9:30  Session 4: External Exposures
Moderator: Theodore Porter (University of California, Los Angeles)
• Timothy Alborn (Lehman College CUNY), Revisions of Mirzah: Death’s Trap Doors, 1711–1915
• Arindam Dutta (Massachusetts Institute of Technology), Money in the Material World: Speculation and Building in the Eighteenth Century

11:30  Lunch

12:30  Session 5: Double Indemnity
Moderator: Jennifer Greenhill (University of Southern California)
• Hannah Farber (Columbia University), Seals, Marks, and Emblems: Art as the Basis for Property Claims
• Ross Barrett (Boston University), Speculative Vision: Daniel Huntington, Land Looking, and the Panic of 1837

2:30  Break

2:45  Session 6: Moral Hazards
Moderator: Sophie Cras (Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne)
• Oliver Wunsch (Boston College), Pastel and the Portraiture of Risk
• Marina Vishmidt (Goldsmiths, University of London), No Sure Thing: Art, Speculative Subjectivities, and Actuarial Genres

4:45  General Reflections and Q&A
Moderator: Steve Hindle (The Huntington)
Discussants: Ross Barrett, Sophie Cras, Nina Dubin, Matthew Hunter, Avigail Moss, and Oliver Wunsch

Exhibition | Painting Edo

Posted in books, catalogues, exhibitions by Editor on February 20, 2020

Tawaraya Sōri, Autumn Maple Trees, painted screen, second half of the eighteenth century
(Feinberg Collection, TL42147.39)

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Press release (3 February 2020) for the exhibition:

Painting Edo: Japanese Art from the Feinberg Collection
Harvard Art Museums, 14 February — 26 July 2020

Curated by Rachel Saunders and Yukio Lippit

Beginning February 14, 2020, the Harvard Art Museums present Painting Edo: Japanese Art from the Feinberg Collection, a special exhibition of more than 120 of the finest works from the preeminent collection of Robert S. (Harvard class of 1961) and Betsy G. Feinberg; the exhibition runs through July 26, 2020. Painting Edo offers a window onto the supremely rich visual culture of Japan’s early modern era and explores how the Edo period (1615–1868), and the city of Edo (present-day Tokyo), expressed itself during a time of artistic renaissance. A striking array of paintings in all the major formats will be on display—hanging scrolls, folding screens, sliding doors, fan paintings, and woodblock-printed books, among others—from virtually every stylistic lineage of the era, telling a comprehensive story of Edo painting on its own terms.

Painting Edo, organized by the Harvard Art Museums, is co-curated by Rachel Saunders, the Abby Aldrich Rockefeller Curator of Asian Art at the Harvard Art Museums, and Yukio Lippit, the Jeffrey T. Chambers and Andrea Okamura Professor of History of Art and Architecture at Harvard University. The exhibition will be on view exclusively at the Harvard Art Museums; an illustrated publication by Saunders and Lippit accompanies the show.

Painting Edo is one of the largest exhibitions ever presented at the Harvard Art Museums—and fittingly so, since the Feinberg Collection is one of the largest gifts of art ever promised to this institution,” said Martha Tedeschi, the Elizabeth and John Moors Cabot Director of the Harvard Art Museums. “We are immensely grateful to the Feinbergs, whose great care and vision will ensure that the beauty and material ingenuity of these works reach viewers today and for generations to come.”

Robert S. and Betsy G. Feinberg generously promised their collection of more than 300 works of Japanese art to the Harvard Art Museums in 2013. Judiciously assembled over nearly fifty years, the collection—the finest private collection of Edo period Japanese painting in the United States—offers an exceptional opportunity to explore continuities and disruptions in artistic practice in early modern Japan. The museums’ stewardship of the collection ensures access by students, faculty, scholars, and the public, and allows for teaching, research, and further documentation of these important works.

The Feinberg Collection is notable not only for its size and remarkable quality, but also for its comprehensiveness. It comprises representative paintings from virtually every stylistic lineage of the era: from the gorgeous decorative works of the Rinpa School to the luminous clarity of the Maruyama-Shijō School, from the monochromatic indexes of interiority of so-called Nanga, or Southern School, painting to the actors and courtesans of the pleasure quarters depicted in ukiyo-e, to the inky innovations of the so-called eccentrics. A complete catalogue of the Feinberg Collection will be published by the museums in late summer 2020.

Over the last five years, since the museums reopened in 2014, select objects from the Feinberg Collection have been on display in extended thematic installations in the East Asian gallery on Level 2. The rotating presentation of these works was designed not only to introduce strengths of the collection to visitors, but also to broaden access for teaching and research. These initial installations provided a preview of the amazing range of works now united in the powerhouse Painting Edo exhibition.

“I had the pleasure of meeting the Feinbergs and viewing their collection for the first time in the late 1990s while I was a student,” said Professor Lippit. “That experience gave me an appreciation for the study of new objects and cultural histories, and since becoming a faculty member at Harvard I have been actively teaching with the Feinberg Collection, inviting students to view and discuss the paintings.”

Painting Edo begins in the Special Exhibitions Gallery on Level 3 and expands into three adjacent galleries typically reserved for installations that support university coursework. This is the first time the museums mount a single exhibition across all four spaces. Visitors are greeted by Tani Bunchō’s Grasses and Moon (1817), a large painting that encapsulates the Japanese tradition of moon-viewing, before being immediately enveloped by Sakai Hōitsu’s Birds and Flowers of the Twelve Months (c. 1820–28), a stunning group of 12 hanging scrolls that together create a paradisal garden in which all the seasons flower simultaneously. From this introductory gallery, visitors are encouraged to wander at will to discover the major schools and styles of painting. Galleries are organized to reflect Edo period conceptions of lineage, offering a view of how “Edo” was articulated by and for its own creators and consumers.

“The Feinbergs have collected so carefully and with such dedication over the years that they have formed a truly comprehensive collection,” said Saunders. “That is particularly significant for us as a teaching museum because it allows us to look at the whole gamut of Edo painting within the exhibition, including virtually every major lineage and painting format.”

Additional Highlights

• Maruyama Ōkyo’s Peacock and Peonies (1768), a hanging scroll with a resplendent peacock rendered with Western-style anatomical precision against a luxuriant background of peonies [Intro section]

A Portuguese Trading Ship Arrives in Japan (17th century), a pair of six-panel folding screens that depicts the arrival of a ship into port and the procession of its captain into town, an annual voyage made by the Portuguese to trade silver, silks, and spices [Floating Worlds section]

• Tawaraya Sōri’s Autumn Maple Trees (second half 18th century), one of only a handful of works that survive by the artist and widely regarded as his masterpiece [School of Kōrin section]

• Ikeno Taiga’s The Poet Su Shi and Meng Jia Loses His Hat (18th century), a pair of six-panel folding screens depicting two renowned figures in acts of elegant disregard for societal norms [Eccentricity section]

Lotus in Autumn (1872), a wildly brushed hanging scroll by the female artist Okuhara Seiko, whose Chinese-style ink paintings became hugely popular in the years immediately following the Meiji Restoration of 1868, a time that ushered in Japan’s modern era [Remembering Edo section]

• Twenty fans by Suzuki Kiitsu, displayed against a deep blue backdrop, evoking the moment at the end of summer when Japanese men and women would cast their used fans into the river in celebration of the arrival of autumn [Remembering Edo section]

A rotation of select exhibition objects will take place between May 4 and 7 to preserve light-sensitive works as well as to add other fine examples of painting. Galleries will remain open to the public on these dates.

Publications

Two catalogues will be released in conjunction with the exhibition, both published by the Harvard Art Museums and distributed by Yale University Press. The first, Painting Edo: Selections from the Feinberg Collection of Japanese Art, is a companion to the exhibition; it offers a sweeping and lavishly illustrated overview of a transformative era in Japanese art-making as told through superb examples from the finest private collection of Edo period painting in the United States. It includes essays by Rachel Saunders and Yukio Lippitt. The second book, a comprehensive Catalogue of the Feinberg Collection of Japanese Art, will be published in late Summer 2020. Edited by Rachel Saunders, the volume includes new photography and commentary from a range of authors on each of the more than 300 works in the Feinberg Collection.

Rachel Saunders and Yukio Lippit, Painting Edo: Selections from the Feinberg Collection of Japanese Art (Cambridge: Harvard Art Museums, 2020), 180 pages, ISBN: 978-030025089, $35.

Rachel Saunders, ed., Catalogue of the Feinberg Collection of Japanese Art (Cambridge: Harvard Art Museums, 2020), 448 pages, ISBN: 978-0300250909, $65.

Call for Essays | Giants and Dwarfs

Posted in Calls for Papers by Editor on February 20, 2020

From ArtHist.net (18 February 2020). . .

Giants and Dwarfs in Early Modern Europe: Real, Imagined, Metaphorical
Volume edited by Robin O’Bryan and Felicia Else

Abstracts due by 30 May 2020

Nourished by biblical accounts, classical precedents, and medieval traditions, the cultural interest in giants and dwarfs came of age in the early modern period. In the popular realm, the two were often to be found in carnivals, fairs, and religious festivals, the role of giants enacted by effigies or people wearing stilts. Dwarfs especially became important additions to the royal and princely courts, enlisted for amusement and prestige and featured in the ruler’s pageantry and protocol. In art, dwarfs were ubiquitous motifs in painting and sculpture, with giants portrayed literally or expressed metaphorically in colossi or other ‘gigantified’ works. Inspired by the Arthurian and Carolingian romances, chivalric spectacles were staged with dwarfs and giants, while burlesque poets and playwrights paid homage to the two in their mock-heroic poems and dramatic endeavors.

We seek essays for an edited volume dealing with any aspect of giants and/or dwarfs in early modern Europe. Topics might focus on their appearance in ephemeral entertainments; their exhibition in popular fairs and carnivals; as characters in legends, folkloric traditions, and dynastic histories; as leitmotifs in artistic and literary works; as embodiments of the period taste for the marvelous; and as manifestations of the Other. Please send abstracts of 200–250 words, along with any questions, to Robin O’Bryan at rlobryan@comcast.net by 30 May 2020.

Conference | Engaging Objects: Looking at Art with Malcolm Baker

Posted in conferences (to attend) by Editor on February 19, 2020

From ArtHist.net:

Engaging Objects: Looking at Art with Malcolm Baker
Center for Ideas and Society, University of California Riverside, 21 February 2020

Organized by Jeanette Kohl, Kristoffer Neville, and Jason Weems

Looking at art with Malcolm Baker is always an adventure. This conference celebrates Distinguished Professor Emeritus Baker’s scholarship and his time at UCR, from 2007 to 2019. Baker is an eminent authority in the history of sculpture, especially in 18th-century Britain, France, and Germany. Within that field, he developed a keen interest in portraiture and the history of collecting and display. Professor Baker had an important career as a curator in the UK, first as Assistant Keeper of the Department of Art & Archaeology at the Royal Scottish Museum in Edinburgh, then as Keeper, Deputy Head of Research, and Head of the Medieval and Renaissance Galleries Project in the Victoria & and Albert Museum in London. He taught at the Universities of York, Sussex, and at USC before joining UCR’s Department of the History of Art as a Distinguished Professor. As chair of the Art History department at UCR he was a key figure in developing and consolidating its ties with the Huntington Library and Gardens and the Getty Museum and Research Institute. Professor Baker’s joy in front of works of art colors and informs his research as much as his teaching, and students love his classes. During the conference, we will look with friends and colleagues at some engaging objects to honor his career and his unique approach to art and its display. The conference is free and open to the public.

P R O G R A M

10:00  Welcome by Jeanette Kohl (Acting Director, Center for Ideas and Society) and Jason Weems (Chair, Department of the History of Art)

10:15  Faya Causey (National Gallery of Art, Washington D.C.), Ancient Amber Miniature Masterpieces

10:45  Thomas E. Cogswell (UCR, History), Van Dyck’s Venus and Adonis: Sex, Power and the Duke of Buckingham

11:15  Steve Hindle (Huntington Library), The Tools in the Shop: The Material Culture of the Village Blacksmith in Seventeenth-Century England

11:45  Lunch break

1:00  Daniela Bleichmar (University of Southern California, Art History), The Museum, the World

1:30  Anne-Lise Desmas (J. Paul Getty Museum), Variations on the Theme of the Portrait Bust, Drawn from the French Sculpture Collection of the J. Paul Getty Museum

2:00  Coffee break

2:30  Jeanette Kohl and Kristoffer Neville (UCR, Art History), Fire Within: Four Eyes on Two Objects

3:00  John Brewer (Professor Emeritus Caltech), Sir William Hamilton’s Sublime Creation: Vesuvius as Dynamic Sculpture

3:30  Coffee break

4:00  Keynote by Malcolm Baker, Crossing Faultlines: Doing Art History in the Museum and the Academy

5:00  Reception at the Center for Ideas and Society, College Building South, UCR

Call for Papers | The Art of Plaster

Posted in Calls for Papers by Editor on February 18, 2020

From ArtHist.net:

The Art of Plaster: Between Creation and Reproduction, Study and Preservation
Faculty of Fine Arts, University of Lisboa / Calouste Gulbenkian Museum, Lisbon, 6–8 July 2020

Proposals due by 10 March 2020

The «Art» of plaster has been valued by our historiography over the last few years. Indeed, it was at the end of the 20th century that the first in-depth studies on the application of plaster in architectural decoration began to emerge, and a new set of plastering artists became known and valued. However, issues concerning sculptural practice itself have been secondary until very recently, although the use of plaster as a material for artistic production has been a constant over the centuries. Because it is very easy to prepare and very malleable, it has been chosen as a material for both architectural decoration and sculpture, due to its ability to imitate other noble materials and, especially, because it is replicable if using casts.

In the artistic production field, even though they often do not represent the final work, the plaster pieces can show us the artists’ original intentions or the various studies and stages of artwork creation. Their preservation often represents the memory of the creation process itself. On the other hand, its use for making moulds easily, and later plaster casts or reproductions, has allowed the spread of three-dimensional shapes around the world, making the great works of art available to those who could never see them in their original place. In the 19th-century Academies, it became practical to exchange patterns of the great museums and collections’ main sculptures, aiming at the creation of sets of models for students’ learning. At the same time, on the architectural decoration field, one witnesses a similar phenomenon, by finding elements copied from important national and foreign monuments.

The growing importance of teaching Industrial Art has also given great importance to learning through the observation and reproduction of the great national and international artistic models, seeking the creation of a new plastic expression, based on artistic tradition. This teaching method is still common today, pursuing an ancient practice of learning for the future artists and our current students, through drawing, painting, sculpture or even copying, continue learning the basis for their future artistic development.

Although its presence in museums in the 19th century was not maintained in the following century, which gradually moved away from the idea of the Universal Museum, today, the reproductions of the great masterpieces are themselves valued objects, giving birth to large collections, which must be preserved and which have been occupying prominent places in numerous museums and art galleries in the international context. The concern for the preservation of these elements is now a vital issue. The maintenance of plaster pieces is essential, as didactic material or as a register of the artistic creation, but also because they become unique testimonies of the state of the pieces in a certain moment, or even of the existence of some works of art that disappeared over the years.

The Conservation and Restoration field has also been developing studies dedicated to these issues, not only about the knowledge of production techniques and their evolution, but also about the type of restoration performed over time. To these aspects was added the importance of the information collected through the examination and analysis methods. With the wealth of information resulting from these studies, increasingly complete and elucidative information is gathered about the state of conservation of the plaster pieces and procedures to be followed for their preservation.

Thematic Lines
• Historical Memory / Art History
Artistic Production
• Teaching
• Preservation, Conservation and Restoration
• Another subject

Official languages: Portuguese and English

Those who are interested in participating are invited to send an abstract of up to 400 words, including title, name, affiliation and text, along with a brief curriculum summary of 50 words maximum, to aartedogesso@belasartes.ulisboa.pt by 10 March 2020. The subject of the email, as well as the file, should have the following designation: ABSTRACT – Name of the first author. Results will be released by 20 March 2020.